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The Anglo-Saxon farmers had scarce conquered foothold, stronghold,
freehold in the Western wilderness before they became sowers of
hemp–with remembrance of Virginia, with remembrance of dear
ancestral Britain. Away back in the days when they lived with wife,
child, flock in frontier wooden fortresses and hardly ventured
forth for water, salt, game, tillage–in the very summer of that
wild daylight ride of Tomlinson and Bell, by comparison with
which, my children, the midnight ride of Paul Revere, was as tame
as the pitching of a rocking-horse in a boy’s nursery–on that
history-making twelfth of August, of the year 1782, when these two
backwoods riflemen, during that same Revolution the Kentuckians
then fighting a branch of that same British army, rushed out of
Bryan’s Station for the rousing of the settlements and the saving
of the West–hemp was growing tall and thick near the walls of the

Hemp in Kentucky in 1782–early landmark in the history of the
soil, of the people. Cultivated first for the needs of cabin and
clearing solely; for twine and rope, towel and table, sheet and
shirt. By and by not for cabin and clearing only; not for tow-
homespun, fur-clad Kentucky alone. To the north had begun the
building of ships, American ships for American commerce, for
American arms, for a nation which Nature had herself created and
had distinguished as a sea-faring race. To the south had begun the
raising of cotton. As the great period of shipbuilding went on–
greatest during the twenty years or more ending in 1860; as the
great period of cotton-raising and cotton-baling went on–never so
great before as that in that same year–the two parts of the nation
looked equally to the one border plateau lying between them, to
several counties of Kentucky, for most of the nation’s hemp. It was
in those days of the North that the CONSTITUTION was rigged with
Russian hemp on one side, with American hemp on the other, for a
patriotic test of the superiority of home-grown, home-prepared
fibre; and thanks to the latter, before those days ended with the
outbreak of the Civil War, the country had become second to Great
Britain alone in her ocean craft, and but little behind that
mistress of the seas. So that in response to this double demand for
hemp on the American ship and hemp on the southern plantation, at
the close of that period of national history on land and sea, from
those few counties of Kentucky, in the year 1859, were taken well-
nigh forty thousand tons of the well-cleaned bast.

What history it wrought in those years, directly for the republic,
indirectly for the world! What ineffaceable marks it left on
Kentucky itself, land, land-owners! To make way for it, a forest
the like of which no human eye will ever see again was felled; and
with the forest went its pastures, its waters. The roads of
Kentucky, those long limestone turnpikes connecting the towns and
villages with the farms–they were early made necessary by the
hauling of the hemp. For the sake of it slaves were perpetually
being trained, hired, bartered; lands perpetually rented and sold;
fortunes made or lost. The advancing price of farms, the westward
movement of poor families and consequent dispersion of the
Kentuckians over cheaper territory, whither they carried the same
passion for the cultivation of the same plant,–thus making
Missouri the second hemp-producing state in the Union,–the
regulation of the hours in the Kentucky cabin, in the house, at the
rope-walk, in the factory,–what phase of life went unaffected by
the pursuit and fascination of it. Thought, care, hope of the
farmer oftentimes throughout the entire year! Upon it depending, it
may be, the college of his son, the accomplishments of his
daughter, the luxuries of his wife, the house he would build, the
stock he could own. His own pleasures also: his deer hunting in the
South, his fox hunting at home, his fishing on the great lakes, his
excursions on the old floating palaces of the Mississippi down to
New Orleans–all these depending in large measure upon his hemp,
that thickest gold-dust of his golden acres.

With the Civil War began the long decline, lasting still. The
record stands that throughout the one hundred and twenty-five odd
years elapsing from the entrance of the Anglo-Saxon farmers into
the wilderness down to the present time, a few counties of Kentucky
have furnished army and navy, the entire country, with all but a
small part of the native hemp consumed. Little comparatively is
cultivated in Kentucky now. The traveller may still see it here and
there, crowning those ever-renewing, self-renewing inexhaustible
fields. But the time cannot be far distant when the industry there
will have become extinct. Its place in the nation’s markets will be
still further taken by metals, by other fibres, by finer varieties
of the same fibre, by the same variety cultivated in soils less
valuable. The history of it in Kentucky will be ended, and, being
ended, lost.

Some morning when the roar of March winds is no more heard in the
tossing woods, but along still brown boughs a faint, veil-like
greenness runs; when every spring, welling out of the soaked earth,
trickles through banks of sod unbarred by ice; before a bee is
abroad under the calling sky; before the red of apple-buds becomes
a sign in the low orchards, or the high song of the thrush is
pouring forth far away at wet pale-green sunsets, the sower, the
earliest sower of the hemp, goes forth into the fields.

Warm they must be, soft and warm, those fields, its chosen
birthplace. Up-turned by the plough, crossed and recrossed by the
harrow, clodless, levelled, deep, fine, fertile–some extinct
river-bottom, some valley threaded by streams, some table-land of
mild rays, moist airs, alluvial or limestone soils–such is the
favorite cradle of the hemp in Nature. Back and forth with measured
tread, with measured distance, broadcast the sower sows, scattering
with plenteous hand those small oval-shaped fruits, gray-green,
black-striped, heavily packed with living marrow.

Lightly covered over by drag or harrow, under the rolled earth now
they lie, those mighty, those inert seeds. Down into the darkness
about them the sun rays penetrate day by day, stroking them with
the brushes of light, prodding them with spears of flame. Drops of
nightly dews, drops from the coursing clouds, trickle down to them,
moistening the dryness, closing up the little hollows of the
ground, drawing the particles of maternal earth more closely.
Suddenly–as an insect that has been feigning death cautiously
unrolls itself and starts into action–in each seed the great
miracle of life begins. Each awakens as from a sleep, as from
pretended death. It starts, it moves, it bursts its ashen woody
shell, it takes two opposite courses, the white, fibril-tapered
root hurrying away from the sun; the tiny stem, bearing its lance-
like leaves, ascending graceful, brave like a palm.

Some morning, not many days later, the farmer, walking out into his
barn lot and casting a look in the direction of his field, sees–or
does he not see?–the surface of it less dark. What is that
uncertain flush low on the ground, that irresistible rush of
multitudinous green? A fortnight, and the field is brown no longer.
Overflowing it, burying it out of sight, is the shallow tidal sea
of the hemp, ever rippling. Green are the woods now with their
varied greenness. Green are the pastures. Green here and there are
the fields: with the bluish green of young oats and wheat; with the
gray green of young barley and rye: with orderly dots of dull dark
green in vast array–the hills of Indian maize. But as the eye
sweeps the whole landscape undulating far and near, from the hues
of tree, pasture, and corn of every kind, it turns to the color of
the hemp. With that in view, all other shades in nature seem dead
and count for nothing. Far reflected, conspicuous, brilliant,
strange; masses of living emerald, saturated with blazing sunlight.

Darker, always darker turns the hemp as it rushes upward: scarce
darker as to the stemless stalks which are hidden now; but darker
in the tops. Yet here two shades of greenness: the male plants
paler, smaller, maturing earlier, dying first; the females darker,
taller, living longer, more luxuriant of foliage and flowering

A hundred days from the sowing, and those flowering heads have come
forth with their mass of leaves and bloom and earliest fruits,
elastic, swaying six, ten, twelve feet from the ground and ripe for
cutting. A hundred days reckoning from the last of March or the
last of April, so that it is July, it is August. And now, borne far
through the steaming air floats an odor, balsamic, startling: the
odor of those plumes and stalks and blossoms from which is exuding
freely the narcotic resin of the great nettle. The nostril expands
quickly, the lungs swell out deeply to draw it in: fragrance once
known in childhood, ever in the memory afterward and able to bring
back to the wanderer homesick thoughts of midsummer days in the
shadowy, many-toned woods, over into which is blown the smell of
the hemp-fields.

Who apparently could number the acres of these in the days gone by?
A land of hemp, ready for the cutting! The oats heavy-headed,
rustling, have turned to gold and been stacked in the stubble or
stored in the lofts of white, bursting barns. The heavy-headed,
rustling wheat has turned to gold and been stacked in the stubble
or sent through the whirling thresher. The barley and the rye are
garnered and gone, the landscape has many bare and open spaces. But
separating these everywhere, rise the fields of Indian corn now in
blade and tassel; and–more valuable than all else that has been
sown and harvested or remains to be–everywhere the impenetrable
thickets of the hemp.

Impenetrable! For close together stand the stalks, making common
cause for soil and light, each but one of many, the fibre being
better when so grown–as is also the fibre of men. Impenetrable
and therefore weedless; for no plant life can flourish there, nor
animal nor bird. Scarce a beetle runs bewilderingly through those
forbidding colossal solitudes. The field-sparrow will flutter away
from pollen-bearing to pollen-receiving top, trying to beguile you
from its nest hidden near the edge. The crow and the blackbird will
seem to love it, having a keen eye for the cutworm, its only enemy.
The quail does love it, not for itself, but for its protection,
leading her brood into its labyrinths out of the dusty road when
danger draws near. Best of all winged creatures it is loved by the
iris-eyed, burnish-breasted, murmuring doves, already beginning to
gather in the deadened tree-tops with crops eager for the seed.
Well remembered also by the long-flight passenger pigeon, coming
into the land for the mast. Best of all wild things whose safety
lies not in the wing but in the foot, it is loved by the hare for
its young, for refuge. Those lithe, velvety, summer-thin bodies!
Observe carefully the tops of the still hemp: are they slightly
shaken? Among the bases of those stalks a cotton-tail is threading
its way inward beyond reach of its pursuer. Are they shaken
violently, parted clean and wide to right and left? It is the path
of the dog following the hot scent–ever baffled.

A hundred days to lift out of those tiny seed these powerful
stalks, hollow, hairy, covered with their tough fibre,–that
strength of cables when the big ships are tugged at by the joined
fury of wind and ocean. And now some morning at the corner of the
field stand the black men with hooks and whetstones. The hook, a
keen, straight blade, bent at right angles to the handle two feet
from the hand. Let these men be the strongest; no weakling can
handle the hemp from seed to seed again. A heart, the doors and
walls of which are in perfect order, through which flows freely the
full stream of a healthy man’s red blood; lungs deep, clear, easily
filled, easily emptied; a body that can bend and twist and be
straightened again in ceaseless rhythmical movement; limbs
tireless; the very spirit of primeval man conquering primeval
nature–all these go into the cutting of the hemp. The leader
strides to the edge, and throwing forward his left arm, along which
the muscles play, he grasps as much as it will embrace, bends the
stalks over, and with his right hand draws the blade through them
an inch or more from the ground. When he has gathered his armful,
he turns and flings it down behind him, so that it lies spread out,
covering when fallen the same space it filled while standing. And
so he crosses the broad acres, and so each of the big black
followers, stepping one by one to a place behind him, until the
long, wavering, whitish green swaths of the prostrate hemp lie
shimmering across the fields. Strongest now is the smell of it,
impregnating the clothing of the men, spreading far throughout the

So it lies a week or more drying, dying, till the sap is out of the
stalks, till leaves and blossoms and earliest ripened or un-ripened
fruits wither and drop off, giving back to the soil the nourishment
they have drawn from it; the whole top being thus otherwise wasted–
that part of the hemp which every year the dreamy millions of the
Orient still consume in quantities beyond human computation, and
for the love of which the very history of this plant is lost in the
antiquity of India and Persia, its home–land of narcotics and
desires and dreams.

Then the rakers with enormous wooden rakes; they draw the stalks
into bundles, tying each with the hemp itself. Following the
binders, move the wagon-beds or slides, gathering the bundles and
carrying them to where, huge, flat, and round, the stacks begin to
rise. At last these are well built; the gates of the field are
closed or the bars put up; wagons and laborers are gone; the brown
fields stand deserted.

One day something is gone from earth and sky: Autumn has come,
season of scales and balances, when the Earth, brought to judgment
for its fruits, says, “I have done what I could–now let me rest!”

Fall!–and everywhere the sights and sounds of falling. In the
woods, through the cool silvery air, the leaves, so indispensable
once, so useless now. Bright day after bright day, dripping night
after dripping night, the never-ending filtering or gusty fall of
leaves. The fall of walnuts, dropping from bare boughs with muffled
boom into the deep grass. The fall of the hickory-nut, rattling
noisily down through the scaly limbs and scattering its hulls among
the stones of the brook below.

The fall of buckeyes, rolling like balls of mahogany into the
little dust paths made by sheep in the hot months when they had
sought those roofs of leaves. The fall of acorns, leaping out of
their matted, green cups as they strike the rooty earth. The fall
of red haw, persimmon, and pawpaw, and the odorous wild plum in its
valley thickets. The fall of all seeds whatsoever of the forest,
now made ripe in their high places and sent back to the ground,
there to be folded in against the time when they shall arise again
as the living generations; the homing, downward flight of the seeds
in the many-colored woods all over the quiet land.

In the fields, too, the sights and sounds of falling, the fall of
the standing fatness. The silent fall of the tobacco, to be hung
head downward in fragrant sheds and barns. The felling whack of the
corn-knife and the rustling of the blades, as the workman gathers
within his arm the top-heavy stalks and presses them into the
bulging shock. The fall of pumpkins into the slow-drawn wagons, the
shaded side of them still white with the morning rime. In the
orchards, the fall of apples shaken thunderously down, and the
piling of these in sprawling heaps near the cider mills. In the
vineyards the fall of sugaring grapes into the baskets and the
bearing of them to the winepress in the cool sunshine, where there
is the late droning of bees about the sweet pomace.

But of all that the earth has yielded with or without the farmer’s
help, of all that he can call his own within the limits of his
land, nothing pleases him better than those still, brown fields
where the shapely stacks stand amid the deadened trees. Two months
have passed, the workmen are at it again. The stacks are torn down,
the bundles scattered, the hemp spread out as once before. There to
lie till it shall be dew-retted or rotted; there to suffer freeze
and thaw, chill rains, locking frosts and loosening snows–all the
action of the elements–until the gums holding together the
filaments of the fibre rot out and dissolve, until the bast be
separated from the woody portion of the stalk, and the stalk itself
be decayed and easily broken.

Some day you walk across the spread hemp, your foot goes through at
each step, you stoop and taking several stalks, snap them readily
in your fingers. The ends stick out clean apart; and lo! hanging
between them, there it is at last–a festoon of wet, coarse, dark
gray riband, wealth of the hemp, sail of the wild Scythian
centuries before Horace ever sang of him, sail of the Roman, dress
of the Saxon and Celt, dress of the Kentucky pioneer.

The rakers reappear at intervals of dry weather, and draw the hemp
into armfuls and set it up in shocks of convenient size, wide
flared at the bottom, well pressed in and bound at the top, so that
the slanting sides may catch the drying sun and the sturdy base
resist the strong winds. And now the fields are as the dark brown
camps of armies–each shock a soldier’s tent. Yet not dark always;
at times snow-covered; and then the white tents gleam for miles in
the winter sunshine–the snow-white tents of the camping hemp.

Throughout the winter and on into early spring, as days may be warm
or the hemp dry, the breaking continues. At each nightfall, cleaned
and baled, it is hauled on wagon-beds or slides to the barns or the
hemphouses, where it is weighed for the work and wages of the day.

Last of all, the brakes having been taken from the field, some
night–dear sport for the lads!–takes place the burning of the
“hempherds,” thus returning their elements to the soil. To kindle a
handful of tow and fling it as a firebrand into one of those masses
of tinder; to see the flames spread and the sparks rush like swarms
of red bees skyward through the smoke into the awful abysses of the
night; to run from gray heap to gray heap, igniting the long line
of signal fires, until the whole earth seems a conflagration and
the heavens are as rosy as at morn; to look far away and descry on
the horizon an array of answering lights; not in one direction
only, but leagues away, to see the fainter ever fainter glow of
burning hempherds–this, too, is one of the experiences, one of the

And now along the turnpikes the great loaded creaking wagons pass
slowly to the towns, bearing the hemp to the factories, thence to
be scattered over land and sea. Some day, when the winds of March
are dying down, the sower enters the field and begins where he
began twelve months before.

A round year of the earth’s changes enters into the creation of the
hemp. The planet has described its vast orbit ere it be grown and
finished. All seasons are its servitors; all contradictions and
extremes of nature meet in its making. The vernal patience of the
warming soil; the long, fierce arrows of the summer heat, the long,
silvery arrows of the summer rain; autumn’s dead skies and sobbing
winds; winter’s sternest, all-tightening frosts. Of none but strong
virtues is it the sum. Sickness or infirmity it knows not. It will
have a mother young and vigorous, or none; an old or weak or
exhausted soil cannot produce it. It will endure no roof of shade,
basking only in the eye of the fatherly sun, and demanding the
whole sky for the walls of its nursery.

Ah! type, too, of our life, which also is earth-sown, earth-rooted;
which must struggle upward, be cut down, rotted and broken, ere the
separation take place between our dross and our worth–poor
perishable shard and immortal fibre. Oh, the mystery, the mystery
of that growth from the casting of the soul as a seed into the dark
earth, until the time when, led through all natural changes and
cleansed of weakness, it is borne from the fields of its nativity
for the long service.


The century just past had not begun the race of its many-footed
years when a neighborhood of Kentucky pioneers, settled throughout
the green valleys of the silvery Elkhorn, built a church in the
wilderness, and constituted themselves a worshipping association.
For some time peace of one sort prevailed among them, if no peace
of any other sort was procurable around. But by and by there arose
sectarian quarrels with other backwoods folk who also wished to
worship God in Kentucky, and hot personal disputes among the
members–as is the eternal law. So that the church grew as grow
infusorians and certain worms,–by fissure, by periodical
splittings and breakings to pieces, each spontaneous division
becoming a new organism. The first church, however, for all that it
split off and cast off, seemed to lose nothing of its vitality or
fighting qualities spiritual and physical (the strenuous life in
those days!); and there came a time when it took offence at one
particular man in its membership on account of the liberality of
his religious opinions. This settler, an old Indian fighter whose
vast estate lay about halfway between the church and the nearest
village, had built himself a good brick house in the Virginian
style; and it was his pleasure and his custom to ask travelling
preachers to rest under his roof as they rode hither and thither
throughout the wilderness–Zion’s weather-beaten, solitary scouts.

While giving entertainment to man and beast, if a Sunday came
round, he would further invite his guest, no matter what kind of
faith the vessel held, if it only held any faith, to ride with him
through the woods and preach to his brethren. This was the front of
his offending. For since he seemed brother to men of every creed,
they charged that he was no longer of THEIR faith (the only true
one). They considered his case, and notified him that it was their
duty under God to expel him.

After the sermon one Sunday morning of summer the scene took place.
They had asked what he had to say, and silence had followed. Not
far from the church doors the bright Elkhorn (now nearly dry) swept
past in its stately shimmering flood. The rush of the water over
the stopped mill-wheel, that earliest woodland music of
civilization, sounded loud amid the suspense and the stillness.

He rose slowly from his seat on the bench in front of the pulpit–
for he was a deacon–and turned squarely at them; speechless just
then, for he was choking with rage.

“My brethren,” he said at length slowly, for he would not speak
until he had himself under control, “I think we all remember what
it is to be persecuted for religion’s sake. Long before we came
together in Spottsylvania County, Virginia, and organized ourselves
into a church and travelled as a church over the mountains into
this wilderness, worshipping by the way, we knew what it was to be
persecuted. Some of us were sent to jail for preaching the Gospel
and kept there; we preached to the people through the bars of our
dungeons. Mobs were collected outside to drown our voices; we
preached the louder and some jeered, but some felt sorry and began
to serve God. They burned matches and pods of red pepper to choke
us; they hired strolls to beat drums that we might not be heard for
the din. Some of us knew what it was to have live snakes thrown
into our assemblages while at worship; or nests of live hornets. Or
to have a crowd rush into the church with farming tools and whips
and clubs. Or to see a gun levelled at one of us in the pulpit, and
to be dispersed with firearms. Harder than any of these things to
stand, we have known what it is to be slandered. But no single man
of us, thank God, ever stopped for these things or for anything.

Thirty years and more this lasted, until we and all such as we
found a friend in Patrick Henry. Now, we hear that by statute all
religious believers in Virginia have been made equal as respects
the rights and favors of the law.

“But you know it was partly to escape intolerable tyranny that we
left our mother country and travelled a path paved with suffering
and lined with death into this wilderness. For in this virgin land
we thought we should be free to worship God according to our

“Since we arrived you know what our life has been,–how we have
fought and toiled and suffered all things together. You recall how
lately it was that when we met in the woods for worship,–having no
church and no seats,–we men listened and sang and prayed with our
rifles on our shoulders.”

He paused, for the memories hurt him cruelly.

“And now you notify me that you intend to expel me from this church
as a man no longer fit to worship my Maker in your company. Do you
bring any charge against my life, my conduct? None. Nothing but
that, as a believer in the living God–whom honestly I try to serve
according to my erring light–I can no longer have a seat among
you–not believing as you believe. But this is the same tyranny
that you found unendurable in Spottsylvania. You have begun it in
Kentucky. You have been at it already how long? Well, my brethren,
I’ll soon end your tyranny over me. You need not TURN me out. And I
need not change my religious opinions. I will GO out. But–”

He wheeled round to the rough pulpit on which lay the copy of the
Bible that they had brought with them from Virginia, their Ark of
the Covenant on the way, seized it, and faced them again. He strode
toward the congregation as far as the benches would allow–not
seeing clearly, for he was sightless with his tears.

“But,” he roared, and as he spoke he struck the Bible repeatedly
with his clenched fist, “by the Almighty, I will build a church of
my own to Him! To Him! do you hear? not to your opinions of Him nor
mine nor any man’s! I will cut off a parcel of my farm and make a
perpetual deed of it in the courts, to be held in trust forever.
And while the earth stands, it shall stand, free to all Christian
believers. I will build a school-house and a meeting-house, where
any child may be free to learn and any man or woman free to

He put the Bible back with shaking arms and turned on them again.

“As for you, my brethren,” he said, his face purple and distorted
with passion, “you may be saved in your crooked, narrow way, if the
mercy of God is able to do it. But you are close to the jaws of
Hell this day!”

He went over into a corner for his hat, took his wife by the hand
and held it tightly, gathered the flock of his children before him,
and drove them out of the church. He mounted his horse, lifted his
wife to her seat behind him, saw his children loaded on two other
horses, and, leading the way across the creek, disappeared in the


Some sixty-five years later, one hot day of midsummer in 1865–one
Saturday afternoon–a lad was cutting weeds in a woodland pasture;
a big, raw-boned, demure boy of near eighteen.

He had on heavy shoes, the toes green with grass stain; the leather
so seasoned by morning dews as to be like wood for hardness. These
were to keep his feet protected from briers or from the bees
scattered upon the wild white clover or from the terrible hidden
thorns of the honey-locust. No socks. A pair of scant homespun
trousers, long outgrown. A coarse clean shirt. His big shock-head
thatched with yellow straw, a dilapidated sun-and-rain shed.

The lanky young giant cut and cut and cut: great purple-bodied
poke, strung with crimson-juiced seed; great burdock, its green
burrs a plague; great milkweed, its creamy sap gushing at every
gash; great thistles, thousand-nettled; great ironweed, plumed with
royal purple; now and then a straggling bramble prone with velvety
berries–the outpost of a patch behind him; now and then–more
carefully, lest he notch his blade–low sprouts of wild cane,
survivals of the impenetrable brakes of pioneer days. All these and
more, the rank, mighty measure of the soil’s fertility–low down.

Measure of its fertility aloft, the tops of the trees, from which
the call of the red-headed woodpecker sounded as faint as the
memory of a sound and the bark of the squirrels was elfin-thin. A
hot crowded land, crammed with undergrowth and overgrowth wherever
a woodland stood; and around every woodland dense cornfields; or,
denser still, the leagues of swaying hemp. The smell of this now
lay heavy on the air, seeming to be dragged hither and thither like
a slow scum on the breeze, like a moss on a sluggish pond. A deep
robust land; and among its growths he–this lad, in his way a
self-unconscious human weed, the seed of his kind borne in from far
some generations back, but springing out of the soil naturally now,
sap of its sap, strength of its strength.

He paused by and by and passed his forefinger across his forehead,
brushing the sweat away from above his quiet eyes. He moistened the
tip of his thumb and slid it along the blade of his hemp hook–he
was using that for lack of a scythe. Turning, he walked back to the
edge of the brier thicket, sat down in the shade of a black walnut,
threw off his tattered head-gear, and, reaching for his bucket of
water covered with poke leaves, lifted it to his lips and drank
deeply, gratefully. Then he drew a whetstone from his pocket, spat
on it, and fell to sharpening his blade.

The heat of his work, the stifling air, the many-toned woods, the
sense of the vast summering land–these things were not in his
thoughts. Some days before, despatched from homestead to homestead,
rumors had reached him away off here at work on his father’s farm,
of a great university to be opened the following autumn at
Lexington. The like of it with its many colleges Kentucky, the
South, the Mississippi valley had never seen. It had been the talk
among the farming people in their harvest fields, at the cross-
roads, on their porches–the one deep sensation among them since
the war.

For solemn, heart-stirring as such tidings would have been at any
other time, more so at this. Here, on the tableland of this unique
border state, Kentucky–between the halves of the nation lately at
strife–scene of their advancing and retreating armies–pit of a
frenzied commonwealth–here was to arise this calm university,
pledge of the new times, plea for the peace and amity of learning,
fresh chance for study of the revelation of the Lord of Hosts and
God of battles. The animosities were over, the humanities re-begun.

Can you remember your youth well enough to be able to recall the
time when the great things happened for which you seemed to be
waiting? The boy who is to be a soldier–one day he hears a distant
bugle: at once HE knows. A second glimpses a bellying sail:
straightway the ocean path beckons to him. A third discovers a
college, and toward its kindly lamps of learning turns young eyes
that have been kindled and will stay kindled to the end.

For some years this particular lad, this obscure item in Nature’s
plan which always passes understanding, had been growing more
unhappy in his place in creation. By temperament he was of a type
the most joyous and self-reliant–those sure signs of health; and
discontent now was due to the fact that he had outgrown his place.
Parentage–a farm and its tasks–a country neighborhood and its
narrowness–what more are these sometimes than a starting-point
for a young life; as a flowerpot might serve to sprout an oak, and
as the oak would inevitably reach the hour when it would either die
or burst out, root and branch, into the whole heavens and the
earth; as the shell and yolk of an egg are the starting-point for
the wing and eye of the eagle. One thing only he had not outgrown,
in one thing only he was not unhappy: his religious nature. This
had always been in him as breath was in him, as blood was in him:
it was his life. Dissatisfied now with his position in the world,
it was this alone that kept him contented in himself. Often the
religious are the weary; and perhaps nowhere else does a perpetual
vision of Heaven so disclose itself to the weary as above lonely
toiling fields. The lad had long been lifting his inner eye to this

When, therefore, the tidings of the university with its Bible
College reached him, whose outward mould was hardship, whose inner
bliss was piety, at once they fitted his ear as the right sound, as
the gladness of long awaited intelligence. It was bugle to the
soldier, sail to the sailor, lamp of learning to the innate student
At once he knew that he was going to the university–sometime,
somehow–and from that moment felt no more discontent, void,
restlessness, nor longing.

It was of this university, then, that he was happily day-dreaming
as he whetted his hemp hook in the depths of the woods that
Saturday afternoon. Sitting low amid heat and weeds and thorns, he
was already as one who had climbed above the earth’s eternal snow-
line and sees only white peaks and pinnacles–the last sublimities.

He felt impatient for to-morrow. One of the professors of the
university, of the faculty of the Bible College, had been
travelling over the state during the summer, pleading its cause
before the people. He had come into that neighborhood to preach and
to plead. The lad would be there to hear.

The church in which the professor was to plead for learning and
religion was the one first set up in the Kentucky wilderness as a
house of religious liberty; and the lad was a great-grandchild of
the founder of that church, here emerging mysteriously from the
deeps of life four generations down the line.


The church which David’s grim old Indian-fighting great-grandfather
had dedicated to freedom of belief in the wilderness, cutting off a
parcel of his lands as he had hotly sworn and building on it a
schoolhouse also, stood some miles distant across the country. The
vast estate of the pioneer had been cut to pieces for his many
sons. With the next generation the law of partible inheritance had
further subdivided each of these; so that in David’s time a single
small farm was all that had fallen to his father; and his father
had never increased it. The church was situated on what had been
the opposite boundary of the original grant. But he with most of
the other boys in the neighborhood had received his simple
education in that school; and he had always gone to worship under
that broad-minded roof, whatsoever the doctrines and dogmas haply

These doctrines and dogmas of a truth were varied and conflicting
enough; for the different flocks and herds of Protestant believers
with their parti-colored guides had for over fifty years found the
place a very convenient strip of spiritual pasture: one
congregation now grazing there jealously and exclusively;
afterwards another.

On this quiet bright Sunday morning in the summer of 1865, the
building (a better than the original one, which had long before
been destroyed by accidental burning) was overcrowded with farming
folk, husbands and wives, of all denominations in the neighborhood,
eager to hear the new plea, the new pleader. David’s father and
mother, intense sectarians and dully pious souls, sat among them.
He himself, on a rearmost bench, was wedged fast between two other
lads of about his own age–they dumb with dread lest they should be
sent away to this university. The minister soon turned the course
of his sermon to the one topic that was uppermost and bottommost in
the minds of all.

He bade them understand now, if they had never realized it before,
that from the entrance of educated men and women into the western
wilderness, those real founders and builders of the great
commonwealth, the dream of the Kentuckians had been the
establishment of a broad, free institution of learning for their
sons. He gave the history of the efforts and the failures to found
such an institution, from the year 1780 to the beginning of the
Civil War; next he showed how, during those few awful years, the
slow precious accumulations of that preceding time had been
scattered; books lost, apparatus ruined, the furniture of lecture
rooms destroyed, one college building burned, another seized and
held as a hospital by the federal government; and he concluded with
painting for them a vision of the real university which was now to
arise at last, oldest, best passion of the people, measure of the
height and breadth of the better times: knowing no North, no South,
no latitude, creed, bias, or political end. In speaking of its
magnificent new endowments, he dwelt upon the share contributed by
the liberal-minded farmers of the state, to some of whom he was
speaking: showing how, forgetful of the disappointments and
failures of their fathers, they had poured out money by the
thousands and tens of thousands, as soon as the idea was presented
to them again–the rearing of a great institution by the people and
for the people in their own land for the training of their sons,
that they might not be sent away to New England or to Europe.

His closing words were solemn indeed; they related to the college
of the Bible, where his own labors were to be performed. For this,
he declared, he pleaded not in the name of the new State, the new
nation, but in the name of the Father. The work of this college was
to be the preparation of young men for the Christian ministry, that
they might go into all the world and preach the Gospel. One truth
he bade them bear in mind: that this training was to be given
without sectarian theology; that his brethren themselves
represented a revolution among believers, having cast aside the
dogmas of modern teachers, and taken, as the one infallible guide
of their faith and practice, the Bible simply; so making it their
sole work to bring all modern believers together into one church,
and that one church the church of the apostles.

For this university, for this college of the Bible especially, he
asked, then, the gift and consecration of their sons.

Toward dusk that day David’s father and mother were sitting side by
side on the steps of their front porch. Some neighbors who had
spent the afternoon with them were just gone. The two were talking
over in low, confidential tones certain subjects discussed less
frankly with their guests. These related to the sermon of the
morning, to the university, to what boys in the neighborhood would
probably be entered as students. Their neighbors had asked whether
David would go. The father and mother had exchanged quick glances
and made no reply. Something in the father’s mind now lay like
worm-wood on the lips.

He sat leaning his head on his hand, his eyes on the ground,
brooding, embittered.

“If I had only had a son to have been proud of!” he muttered. “It’s
of no use; he wouldn’t go. It isn’t in him to take an education.”

“No,” said the mother, comforting him resignedly, after a pause in
which she seemed to be surveying the boy’s whole life; “it’s of no
use; there never was much in David.”

“Then he shall work!” cried the father, striking his knee with
clenched fist. “I’ll see that he is kept at work.”

Just then the lad came round from behind the house, walking
rapidly. Since dinner he had been off somewhere, alone, having it
out with himself, perhaps shrinking, most of all, from this first
exposure to his parents. Such an ordeal is it for us to reveal what
we really are to those who have known us longest and have never
discovered us.

He walked quickly around and stood before them, pallid and shaking
from head to foot.


There was filial dutifulness in the voice, but what they had never
heard from those lips–authority.

“I am going to the university, to the Bible College. It will be
hard for you to spare me, I know, and I don’t expect to go at once.
But I shall begin my preparations, and as soon as it is possible I
am going. I have felt that you and mother ought to know my decision
at once.”

As he stood before them in the dusk and saw on their countenances
an incredible change of expression, he naturally mistook it, and
spoke again with more authority.

“Don’t say anything to me now, father! And don’t oppose me when the
time comes; it would be useless. Try to learn while I am getting
ready to give your consent and to obtain mother’s. That is all I
have to say.”

He turned quickly away and passed out of the yard gate toward the
barn, for the evening feeding.

The father and mother followed his figure with their eyes,
forgetting each other, as long as it remained in sight. If the
flesh of their son had parted and dissolved away into nothingness,
disclosing a hidden light within him like the evening star, shining
close to their faces, they could scarce have been struck more
speechless. But after a few moments they had adjusted themselves to
this lofty annunciation. The mother, unmindful of what she had just
said, began to recall little incidents of the lad’s life to show
that this was what he was always meant to be. She loosened from her
throat the breast-pin containing the hair of the three heads
braided together, and drew her husband’s attention to it with a
smile. He, too, disregarding his disparagement of the few minutes
previous, now began to admit with warmth how good a mind David had
always had. He prophesied that at college he would outstrip the
other boys from that neighborhood. This, in its way, was also fresh
happiness to him; for, smarting under his poverty among rich
neighbors, and fallen from the social rank to which he was actually
entitled, he now welcomed the secondary joy which originates in the
revenge men take upon each other through the superiority of their

One thing both agreed in: that this explained their son. He had
certainly always needed an explanation. But no wonder; he was to be
a minister. And who had a right to understand a minister? He was
entitled to be peculiar.

When David came in to supper that night and took his seat, shame-
faced, frowning and blinking at the candle-light, his father began
to talk to him as he had never believed possible; and his mother,
placing his coffee before him, let her hand rest on his shoulder.

He, long ahungered for their affection and finding it now when
least expected, filled to the brim, choked at every morsel, got
away as soon as he could into the sacred joy of the night Ah, those
thrilling hours when the young disciple, having for the first time
confessed openly his love of the Divine, feels that the Divine
returns his love and accepts his service!


Autumn came, the university opened wide its harmonious doors,
welcoming Youth and Peace.

All that day a lad, alone at his field work away off on the edge of
the bluegrass lands, toiled as one listening to a sublime sound in
the distance–the tramping, tramping, tramping of the students as
they assembled from the farms of the state and from other states.
Some boys out of his own neighborhood had started that morning, old
schoolfellows. He had gone to say good-by; had sat on the bed and
watched them pack their fine new trunks–cramming these with fond
maternal gifts and the thoughtless affluence of necessary and
unnecessary things; had heard all the wonderful talk about classes
and professors and societies; had wrung their hands at last with
eyes turned away, that none might see the look in them–the
immortal hunger.

How empty now the whole land without those two or three boys! Not
far away across the fields, soft-white in the clear sunshine, stood
the home of one of them–the green shutters of a single upper room
tightly closed. His heart-strings were twisted tight and wrung
sore this day; and more than once he stopped short in his work (the
cutting of briers along a fence), arrested by the temptation to
throw down his hook and go. The sacred arguments were on his side.
Without choice or search of his they clamored and battered at his
inner ear–those commands of the Gospels, the long reverberations
of that absolute Voice, bidding irresolute workaday disciples leave
the plough in the furrow, leave whatsoever task was impending or
duty uppermost to the living or the dead, and follow,–“Follow Me!”

Arguments, verily, had he in plenty; but raiment–no; nor scrip.
And knew he ever so little of the world, sure he felt of this: that
for young Elijahs at the university there were no ravens; nor wild
honey for St. John; nor Galilean basketfuls left over by hungry
fisherfolk, fishers of men.

So back to his briers. And back to the autumn soil, days of hard
drudging, days of hard thinking. The chief problem for the nigh
future being, how soonest to provide the raiment, fill the scrip;
and so with time enough to find out what, on its first appearance,
is so terrible a discovery to the young, straining against
restraint: that just the lack of a coarse garment or two–of a
little money for a little plain food–of a few candles and a few
coverlets for light and warmth with a book or two thrown in–that
a need so poor, paltry as this, may keep mind and heart back for
years. Ah, happy ye! with whom this last not too long–or for

Yet happy ye, whether the waiting be for short time or long time,
if only it bring on meanwhile, as it brought on with him, the
struggle! One sure reward ye have, then, as he had, though there
may be none other–just the struggle: the marshalling to the front
of rightful forces–will, effort, endurance, devotion; the putting
resolutely back of forces wrongful; the hardening of all that is
soft within, the softening of all that is hard: until out of the
hardening and the softening results the better tempering of the
soul’s metal, and higher development of those two qualities which
are best in man and best in his ideal of his Maker–strength and
kindness, power and mercy. With an added reward also, if the
struggle lead you to perceive (what he did not perceive), as the
light of your darkness, the sweet of bitter, that real struggling
is itself real living, and that no ennobling thing of this earth is
ever to be had by man on any other terms: so teaching him, none too
soon, that any divine end is to be reached but through divine
means, that a great work requires a great preparation.

Of the lad’s desperate experience henceforth in mere outward
matters the recital may be suppressed: the struggle of the earth’s
poor has grown too common to make fresh reading. He toiled
direfully, economized direfully, to get to his college, but in this
showed only the heroism too ordinary among American boys to be
marvelled at more. One fact may be set down, as limning some true
figure of him on the landscape of those years in that peculiar

The war had just closed. The farmers, recollecting the fortunes
made in hemp before, had hurried to the fields. All the more as the
long interruption of agriculture in the South had resulted in
scarcity of cotton; so that the earnest cry came to Kentucky for
hemp at once to take many of its places. But meantime the slaves
had been set free: where before ordered, they must now be hired. A
difficult agreement to effect at all times, because will and word
and bond were of no account. Most difficult when the breaking of
hemp was to be bargained for; since the laborer is kept all day in
the winter fields, away from the fireside, and must toil solitary
at his brake, cut off from the talk and laughter which lighten work
among that race. So that wages rose steadily, and the cost of hemp
with them.

The lad saw in this demand for the lowest work at the highest
prices his golden opportunity–and seized it. When the hemp-
breaking season opened that winter, he made his appearance on the
farm of a rich farmer near by, taking his place with the negroes.

There is little art in breaking hemp. He soon had the knack of
that: his muscles were toughened already. He learned what it was
sometimes to eat his dinner in the fields, warming it, maybe, on
the coals of a stump set on fire near his brake; to bale his hemp
at nightfall and follow the slide or wagon to the barn; there to
wait with the negroes till it was weighed on the steelyards; and at
last, with muscles stiff and sore, throat husky with dust, to
stride away rapidly over the bitter darkening land to other work
awaiting him at home.

Had there been call to do this before the war, it might not have
been done. But now men young and old, who had never known what work
was, were replacing their former slaves. The preexisting order had
indeed rolled away like a scroll; and there was the strange fresh
universal stir of humanity over the land like the stir of nature in
a boundless wood under a new spring firmament He was one of a
multitude of new toilers; but the first in his neighborhood, and
alone in his grim choice of work.

So dragged that winter through. When spring returned, he did
better. With his father’s approval, he put in some acres for
himself–sowed it, watched it, prayed for it; in summer cut it;
with hired help stacked it in autumn; broke it himself the winter
following; sold it the next spring; and so found in his pocket the
sorely coveted money.

This was increased that summer from the sale of cord wood, through
driblets saved by his father and mother; and when, autumn once more
advanced with her days of shadow and thoughtfulness–two years
having now passed–he was in possession of his meagre fortune,
wrung out of earth, out of sweat and strength and devotion.

Only a few days remained now before his leaving for the university–
very solemn tender days about the house with his father and

And now for the lad’s own sake, as for the clearer guidance of
those who may care to understand what so incredibly befell him
afterward, an attempt must be made to reveal somewhat of his
spiritual life during those two years. It was this, not hard work,
that writ his history.

As soon as he had made up his mind to study for the ministry, he
had begun to read his Bible absorbingly, sweeping through that
primitive dawn of life among the Hebrews and that second, brilliant
one of the Christian era. He had few other books, none important;
he knew nothing of modern theology or modern science. Thus he was
brought wholly under the influence of that view of Man’s place in
Nature which was held by the earliest Biblical writers, has imposed
itself upon countless millions of minds since then, and will
continue to impose itself–how much longer?

As regarded, then, his place in Nature, this boy became a
contemporary of the Psalmist; looked out upon the physical universe
with the eye of Job; placed himself back beside that simple,
audacious, sublime child–Man but awakening from his cradle of
faith in the morning of civilization. The meaning of all which to
him was this: that the most important among the worlds swung in
space was the Earth, on account of a single inhabitant–Man. Its
shape had been moulded, its surface fitted up, as the dwelling-
place of Man. Land, ocean, mountain-range, desert, valley–these
were designed alike for Man. The sun–it was for him; and the moon;
and the stars, hung about the earth as its lights–guides to the
mariner, reminders to the landsman of the Eye that never slumbered.
The clouds–shade and shower–they were mercifully for Man.
Nothing had meaning, possessed value, save as it derived meaning
and value from him. The great laws of Nature–they, too, were
ordered for Man’s service, like the ox and the ass; and as he drove
his ox and his ass whither he would, caused them to move forward or
to stop at the word of command, so Man had only to speak properly
(in prayer) and these laws would move faster or less fast, stop
still, turn to the right or the left side of the road that he
desired to travel. Always Man, Man, Man, nothing but Man! To
himself measure of the universe as to himself a little boy is sole
reason for the food and furnishings of his nursery.

This conception of Man’s place in Nature has perhaps furnished a
very large part of the history of the world. Even at this close of
the nineteenth century, it is still, in all probability, the most
important fact in the faith and conduct of the race, running with
endless applications throughout the spheres of practical life and
vibrating away to the extremities of the imagination. In the case
of this poor, devout, high-minded Kentucky boy, at work on a farm
in the years 1866 and 1867, saving his earnings and reading his
Bible as the twofold preparation for his entrance into the
Christian ministry, this belief took on one of its purest shapes
and wrought out in him some of its loftiest results.

Let it be remembered that he lived in a temperate, beautiful,
bountiful country; that his work was done mostly in the fields,
with the aspects of land and sky ever before him; that he was much
alone; that his thinking was nearly always of his Bible and his
Bible college. Let it be remembered that he had an eye which was
not merely an opening and closing but a seeing eye–full of health
and of enjoyment of the pageantry of things; and that behind this
eye, looking through it as through its window, stood the dim soul
of the lad, itself in a temple of perpetual worship: these are some
of the conditions which yielded him during these two years the
intense, exalted realities of his inner life.

When of morning he stepped out of the plain farm-house with its
rotting doors and leaking roof and started off joyously to his
day’s work, at the sight of the great sun just rising above the low
dew-wet hills, his soul would go soaring away to heaven’s gate.
Sometimes he would be abroad late at night, summoning the doctor
for his father or returning from a visit to another neighborhood.
In every farmhouse that he passed on the country road the people
were asleep–over all the shadowy land they were asleep. And
everywhere, guardian in the darkness, watched the moon, pouring its
searching beams upon every roof, around every entrance, on kennel
and fold, sty and barn–with light not enough to awaken but enough
to protect: how he worshipped toward that lamp tended by the
Sleepless! There were summer noons when he would be lying under a
solitary tree in a field–in the edge of its shade, resting; his
face turned toward the sky. This would be one over-bending vault of
serenest blue, save for a distant flight of snow-white clouds,
making him think of some earthward-wandering company of angels. He
would lie motionless, scarce breathing, in that peace of the earth,
that smile of the Father. Or if this same vault remained serene too
long; if the soil of the fields became dusty to his boots and his
young grain began to wither, when at last, in response to his
prayer, the clouds were brought directly over them and emptied
down, as he stepped forth into the cooled, dripping, soaking green,
how his heart blessed the Power that reigned above and did all
things well!

It was always praise, gratitude, thanks-giving, whatever happened.
If he prayed for rain for his crops and none was sent, then he
thought his prayer lacked faith or was unwise, he knew not how; if
too much rain fell, so that his grain rotted, this again was from
some fault of his or for his good; or perhaps it was the evil work
of the prince of the powers of the air–by permission of the
Omnipotent. In the case of one crop all the labor of nearly a year
went for nothing: he explained this as a reminder that he must be

Come good, come ill, then, crops or no crops, increase or decrease,
it was all the same to him: he traced the cause of all plenty as of
all disappointment and disaster reaching him through the laws of
nature to some benevolent purpose of the Ruler. And ever before his
eyes also he kept that spotless Figure which once walked among men
on earth–that Saviour of the world whose service he was soon to
enter, whose words of everlasting life he was to preach: his
father’s farm became as the vineyard of the parables in the
Gospels, he a laborer in it.

Thus this lad was nearer the first century and yet earlier ages
than the nineteenth. He knew more of prophets and apostles than
modern doctors of divinity. When the long-looked-for day arrived
for him to throw his arms around his father and mother and bid them
good-by, he should have mounted a camel, like a youth of the Holy
Land of old, and taken his solemn, tender way across the country
toward Jerusalem.


One crisp, autumn morning, then, of that year 1867, a big, raw-
boned, bashful lad, having passed at the turnstile into the twenty-
acre campus, stood reverently still before the majestical front of
Morrison College. Browned by heat and wind, rain and sun; straight
of spine, fine of nerve, tough of muscle. In one hand he carried an
enormous, faded valise, made of Brussels carpet copiously sprinkled
with small, pink roses; in the other, held like a horizontal
javelin, a family umbrella. A broken rib escaped his fingers.

It was no time and place for observation or emotion. The turnstile
behind him was kept in a whirl by students pushing through and
hurrying toward the college a few hundred yards distant; others,
who had just left it, came tramping toward him and passing out. In
a retired part of the campus, he could see several pacing slowly to
and fro in the grass, holding text-books before their faces. Some
were grouped at the bases of the big Doric columns, at work
together. From behind the college on the right, two or three
appeared running and disappeared through a basement entrance. Out
of the grass somewhere came the sound of a whistle as clear and
happy as of a quail in the wheat; from another direction, the
shouts and wrangling of a playground. Once, barely audible, through
the air surged and died away the last bars of a glorious hymn, sung
by a chorus of fresh male voices. The whole scene was one of
bustle, work, sport, worship.

A few moments the lad remained where he had halted, drinking
through every thirsting pore; but most of all with his eyes
satisfied by the sight of that venerable building which, morning
and night, for over two years had shaped itself to his imagination–
that seat of the university–that entrance into his future.

Three students came strolling along the path toward him on their
way down town. One was slapping his book against his thigh; one was
blowing a ditty through his nose, like music on a comb; one, in the
middle, had his arms thrown over the shoulders of the others, and
was at intervals using them as crutches. As they were about to pass
the lad, who had stepped a few feet to one side of the path, they
wheeled and laughed at him.

“Hello, preachy!” cried one. His face was round, red, and soft,
like the full moon; the disk was now broken up by smiling creases.

“Can you tell me,” inquired the lad, coloring and wondering how it
was already known that he was to be a preacher, “Can you tell me
just the way to the Bible College?”

The one of the three on the right turned to the middle man and
repeated the question gravely:–

“Can you tell me just the way to the Bible College?”

The middle man turned and repeated it gravely to the one on the

“Can you tell me just the way to the Bible College?”

The one on the left seized a passing student:–

“Can you tell us all just the way to the Bible College?”

“Ministers of grace!” he said, “without the angels!” Then turning
to the lad, he continued: “You see this path? Take it! Those steps?
Go straight up those steps. Those doors? Enter! Then, if you don’t
see the Bible College, maybe you’ll see the janitor–if he is
there. But don’t you fear! You may get lost, but you’ll never get

The lad knew he was being guyed, but he didn’t mind: what hurt him
was that his Bible College should be treated with such levity.

“Thank you,” he said pleasantly but proudly.

“Have you matriculated?” one of the three called after him as he
started forward.

David had never heard that word; but he entertained such a respect
for knowledge that he hated to appear unnecessarily ignorant.

“I don’t think–I have,” he observed vaguely.

The small eyes of the full moon disappeared altogether this time.

“Well, you’ve got to matriculate, you know,” he said. “You’d better
do that sometime. But don’t speak of it to your professors, or to
anybody connected with the college. It must be kept secret.”

“Will I be too late for the first recitations?”

The eager question was on the lad’s lips but never uttered. The
trio had wheeled carelessly away.

There passed them, coming toward David, a tall, gaunt, rough-
whiskered man, wearing a paper collar without a cravat, and a
shiny, long-tailed, black cloth coat. He held a Bible opened at

“Good morning, brother,” he said frankly, speaking in the simple
kindness which comes from being a husband and father. “You are
going to enter the Bible College, I see.”

“Yes, sir,” replied the lad. “Are you one of the professors?”

The middle-aged man laughed painfully.

“I am one of the students.”

David felt that he had inflicted a wound. “How many students are
here?” he asked quickly.

“About a thousand.”

The two walked side by side toward the college.

“Have you matriculated?” inquired the lad’s companion. There was
that awful word again!

“I don’t know HOW to matriculate. How DO you matriculate? What is

“I’LL go with you. I’LL show you,” said the simple fatherly guide.

“Thank you, if you will” breathed the lad, gratefully.

After a brief silence his companion spoke again.

“I’m late in life in entering college. I’ve got a son half as big
as you and a baby; and my wife’s here. But, you see, I’ve had a
hard time. I’ve preached for years. But I wasn’t satisfied. I
wanted to understand the Bible better. And this is the place to do
that.” Now that he had explained himself, he looked relieved.

“Well,” said David, fervently, entering at once into a brotherhood
with this kindly soul, “that’s what I’ve come for, too. I want to
understand the Bible better–and if I am ever worthy–I want to
preach it. And you have baptized people already?”

“Hundreds of them. Here we are,” said his companion, as they passed
under a low doorway, on one side of the pillared steps.

“Here I am at last,” repeated the lad to himself with solemn joy,
“And now God be with me!”

By the end of that week he had the run of things; had met his
professors, one of whom had preached that sermon two summers
before, and now, on being told who the lad was, welcomed him as a
sheaf out of that sowing; had been assigned to his classes; had
gone down town to the little packed and crowded book-store and
bought the needful student’s supplies–so making the first draught
on his money; been assigned to a poor room in the austere dormitory
behind the college; made his first failures in recitations,
standing before his professor with no more articulate voice and no
more courage than a sheep; and had awakened to a new sense–the
brotherhood of young souls about him, the men of his college.

A revelation they were! Nearly all poor like himself; nearly all
having worked their way to the university: some from farms, some by
teaching distant country or mountain schools; some by the peddling
of books–out of unknown byways, from the hedges and ditches of
life, they had assembled: Calvary’s regulars.

One scene in his new life struck upon the lad’s imagination like a
vision out of the New Testament,–his first supper in the bare
dining room of that dormitory: the single long, rough table; the
coarse, frugal food; the shadows of the evening hour; at every
chair a form reverently standing; the saying of the brief grace–
ah, that first supper with the disciples!

Among the things he had to describe in his letter to his father and
mother, this scene came last; and his final words to them were a
blessing that they had made him one of this company of young men.


The lad could not study eternally. The change from a toiling body
and idle mind to an idle body and toiling mind requires time to
make the latter condition unirksome. Happily there was small need
to delve at learning. His brain was like that of a healthy wild
animal freshly captured from nature. And as such an animal learns
to snap at flung bits of food, springing to meet them and sinking
back on his haunches keen-eyed for more; so mentally he caught at
the lessons prepared for him by his professors: every faculty asked
only to be fed–and remained hungry after the feeding.

Of afternoons, therefore, when recitations were over and his
muscles ached for exercise, he donned his old farm hat and went,
stepping in his high, awkward, investigating way around the town–
unaware of himself, unaware of the light-minded who often turned
to smile at that great gawk in grotesque garments, with his face
full of beatitudes and his pockets full of apples. For apples were
beginning to come in from the frosty orchards; and the fruit
dealers along the streets piled them into pyramids of temptation.
It seemed a hardship to him to have to spend priceless money for a
thing like apples, which had always been as cheap and plentiful as
spring water. But those evening suppers in the dormitory with the
disciples! Even when he was filled (which was not often) he was
never comforted; and one day happening upon one of those
pomological pyramids, he paused, yearned, and bought the apex. It
was harder not to buy than to buy. After that he fell into this
fruitful vice almost diurnally; and with mortifying worldly-
mindedness he would sometimes find his thoughts straying apple-
wards while his professors were personally conducting him through
Canaan or leading him dry-shod across the Red Sea. The little
dealer soon learned to anticipate his approach; and as he drew up
would have the requisite number ready and slide them into his
pockets without a word–and without the chance of inspection. A
man’s candy famine attacked him also. He usually bought some
intractable, resisting medium: it left him rather tired of

So during those crude days he went strolling solemnly about the
town, eating, exploring, filling with sweetmeats and filled with
wonder. It was the first city he had ever seen, the chief interior
city of the state. From childhood he had longed to visit it. The
thronged streets, the curious stores, the splendid residences, the
flashing equipages–what a new world it was to him! But the first
place he inquired his way to was the factory where he had sold his
hemp. Awhile he watched the men at work, wondering whether they
might not then be handling some that he had broken.

At an early date also he went to look up his dear old neighborhood
schoolfellows who two years before had left him, to enter another
college of the University. By inquiry he found out where they
lived–in a big, handsome boarding-house on a fashionable street.
He thought he had never even dreamed of anything so fine as was
this house–nor had he. As he sat in the rich parlors, waiting to
learn whether his friends were at home, he glanced uneasily at his
shoes to see whether they might not be soiling the carpet; and he
vigorously dusted himself with his breath and hands–thus
depositing on the furniture whatever dust there was to transfer.

Having been invited to come up to his friends’ room, he mounted and
found one of them waiting at the head of the stairs in his shirt
sleeves, smoking. His greeting was hearty in its way yet betokened
some surprise, a little uneasiness, condescension. David followed
his host into a magnificent room with enormous windows, now raised
and opening upon a veranda. Below was a garden full of old vines
black with grapes and pear trees bent down with pears and beds
bright with cool autumn flowers. (The lad made a note of how much
money he would save on apples if he could only live in reach of
those pear trees.) There was a big rumpled bed in the room; and
stretched across this bed on his stomach lay a student studying and
waving his heels slowly in the air. A table stood in the middle of
the room: the books and papers had been scraped off to the floor;
four students were seated at it playing cards and smoking. Among
them his other friend, who rose and gave him a hearty grip and
resuming his seat asked what was trumps. A voice he had heard
before called out to him from the table:–

“Hello, preachy! Did you find your way to the Bible College?”

Whereupon the student on the bed rolled heavily over, sat up
dejectedly, and ogled him with red eyes and a sagging jaw.

“Have you matriculated?” he asked.

David did not think of the cards, and he liked the greeting of the
two strangers who guyed him better than the welcome of his old
friends. That hurt: he had never supposed there was anything just
like it in the nature of man. But during the years since he had
seen them, old times were gone, old manners changed. And was it not
in the hemp fields of the father of one of them that he had
meantime worked with the negroes? And is there any other country in
the world where the clean laborer is so theoretically honored and
so practically despised as by the American snob of each sex?

One afternoon he went over to the courthouse and got the county
clerk to show him the entry where his great-grandfather had had the
deed to his church recorded. There it all was!–all written down to
hold good while the world lasted: that perpetual grant of part and
parcel of his land, for the use of a free school and a free church.
The lad went reverently over the plain, rough speech of the mighty
old pioneer, as he spoke out his purpose.

During those early days also he sought out the different churches,
scrutinizing respectfully their exteriors. How many they were, and
how grand nearly all! Beyond anything he had imagined. He reasoned
that if the buildings were so fine, how fine must be the singing
and the sermons! The unconscious assumption, the false logic here,
was creditable to his heart at least–to that green trust of the
young in things as they should be which becomes in time the best
seasoned staff of age. He hunted out especially the Catholic
Church. His great-grandfather had founded his as free for Catholics
as Protestants, but he recalled the fact that no priest had ever
preached there. He felt very curious to see a priest. A synagogue
in the town he could not find. He was sorry. He had a great desire
to lay eyes on a synagogue–temple of that ancient faith which had
flowed on its deep way across the centuries without a ripple of
disturbance from the Christ. He had made up his mind that when he
began to preach he would often preach especially to the Jews: the
time perhaps had come when the Father, their Father, would reveal
his Son to them also. Thus he promptly fixed in mind the sites of
all the churches, because he intended in time to go to them all.

Meantime he attended his own, the size and elegance of which were a
marvel; and in it especially the red velvet pulpit and the vast
chandelier (he had never seen a chandelier before), blazing with
stars (he had never seen illuminating gas). It was under this
chandelier that he himself soon found a seat. All the Bible
students sat there who could get there, that being the choir of
male voices; and before a month passed he had been taken into this
choir: for a storm-like bass rolled out of him as easily as thunder
out of a June cloud. Thus uneventful flowed the tenor of his
student life during those several initiatory weeks: then something
occurred that began to make grave history for him.

The pastor announced at service one morning that he would that day
begin a series of sermons on errors in the faith and practice of
the different Protestant sects; though he would also consider in
time the cases of the Catholics and Jews: it would scarcely be
necessary to speak of the Mohammedans and such others. He was
driven to do this, he declared, and was anxious to do it, as part
of the work of his brethren all over the country; which was the
restoration of Apostolic Christianity to the world. He asked the
especial attention of the Bible students of the University to these
sermons: the first of which he then proceeded to preach.

That night the lad was absent from his place: he was seated in the
church which had been riddled with logic in the morning. Just why
it would be hard to say. Perhaps his motive resembled that which
prompts us to visit a battle-field and count the slain. Only, not a
soul of those people seemed even to have been wounded. They sang,
prayed, preached, demeaned themselves generally as those who
believed that THEY were the express chosen of the Lord, and greatly
enjoyed the notorious fact.

The series of sermons went on: every night the lad was missing from
his place–gone to see for himself and to learn more about those
worldly churches which had departed from the faith once delivered
to the saints, and if saved at all, then by the mercy of God and
much of it.

In the history of any human soul it is impossible to grasp the
first event that starts up a revolution. But perhaps the troubles
of the lad began here. His absences from Sunday night service of
course attracted notice under the chandelier. His bass was missed.
Another student was glad to take his place. His roommate and the
several other dormitory students who had become his acquaintances,
discussed with him the impropriety of these absences: they agreed
that he would better stick to his own church. He gave reasons why
he should follow up the pastor’s demonstrations with actual visits
to the others: he contended that the pastor established the fact of
the errors; but that the best way to understand any error was to
study the erring. This was all new to him, however. He had not
supposed that in educating himself to preach the simple Gospel, to
the end that the world might believe in Christ, he must also preach
against those who believed in Christ already. Besides, no one
seemed to be convinced by the pastor but those who agreed with him
in advance: the other churches flourished quite the same.

He cited a sermon he had heard in one, which, to the satisfaction
of all present, had riddled his own church, every word of the proof
being based on Scripture: so there you were!

A little cloud came that instant between David and the students to
whom he expressed these views. Some rejoined hotly at once; some
maintained the cold silence which intends to speak in its own time.
The next thing the lad knew was that a professor requested him to
remain after class one day; and speaking with grave kindness,
advised him to go regularly to his own church thereafter. The lad
entered ardently into the reasons why he had gone to the others.
The professor heard him through and without comment repeated his
grave, kind advice.

Thereafter the lad was regularly in his own seat there–but with a
certain mysterious, beautiful feeling gone. He could not have said
what this feeling was, did not himself know. Only, a slight film
seemed to pass before his eyes when he looked at his professor, so
that he saw him less clearly and as more remote.

One morning there was a sermon on the Catholics. David went
dutifully to his professor. He said he had never been to a Catholic
Church and would like to go. His professor assented cordially,
evincing his pleasure in the lad’s frankness. But the next Sunday
morning he was in the Catholic Church again, thus for the first
time missing the communion in his own. Of all the congregations of
Christian believers that the lad had now visited, the Catholic
impressed him as being the most solemn, reverent, and best
mannered. In his own church the place did not seem to become the
house of God till services began; and one morning in particular,
two old farmers in the pew behind him talked in smothered tones of
stock and crops, till it fairly made him homesick. The sermon of
the priest, too, filled him with amazement. It weighed the claims
of various Protestant sects to be reckoned as parts of the one true
historic church of God. In passing, he barely referred to the most
modern of these self-constituted Protestant bodies–David’s own
church–and dismissed it with one blast of scorn, which seemed to
strike the lad’s face like a hot wind: it left it burning. But to
the Episcopal Church the priest dispensed the most vitriolic
criticism. And that night, carried away by the old impulse, which
had grown now almost into a habit, David went to the Episcopal
Church: went to number the slain. The Bishop of the diocese, as it
happened, was preaching that night–preaching on the union of
Christian believers. He showed how ready the Episcopal Church was
for such a union if the rest would only consent: but no other
church, he averred, must expect the Episcopal Church ever to
surrender one article of its creed, namely: that it alone was
descended not by historical continuity simply, but by Divine
succession from the Apostles themselves. The lad walked slowly back
to the dormitory that night with knit brows and a heavy heart.

A great change was coming over him. His old religious peace had
been unexpectedly disturbed. He found himself in the thick of the
wars of dogmatic theology. At that time and in that part of the
United States these were impassioned and rancorous to a degree
which even now, less than half a century later, can scarce be
understood; so rapidly has developed meantime that modern spirit
which is for us the tolerant transition to a yet broader future.
Had Kentucky been peopled by her same people several generations
earlier, the land would have run red with the blood of religious
persecutions, as never were England and Scotland at their worst. So
that this lad, brought in from his solemn, cloistered fields and
introduced to wrangling, sarcastic, envious creeds, had already
begun to feel doubtful and distressed, not knowing what to believe
nor whom to follow. He had commenced by being so plastic a medium
for faith, that he had tried to believe them all. Now he was in the
intermediate state of trying to ascertain which. From that state
there are two and two only final ones to emerge: “I shall among
them believe this one only;” or, “I shall among them believe–
none.” The constant discussion of some dogma and disproof of some
dogma inevitably begets in a certain order of mind the temper to
discuss and distrust ALL dogma.

Not over their theologies alone were the churches wrangling before
the lad’s distracted thoughts. If the theologies were rending
religion, politics was rending the theologies. The war just ended
had not brought, as the summer sermon of the Bible College
professor had stated, breadth of mind for narrowness, calm for
passion. Not while men are fighting their wars of conscience do
they hate most, but after they have fought; and Southern and Union
now hated to the bottom and nowhere else as at their prayers. David
found a Presbyterian Church on one street called “Southern” and one
a few blocks away called “Northern”: how those brethren dwelt
together. The Methodists were similarly divided. Of Baptists, the
lad ascertained there had been so many kinds and parts of kinds
since the settlement of Kentucky, that apparently any large-sized
family anywhere could reasonably have constituted itself a church,
if the parents and children had only been fortunate enough to

Where politics did not cleave, other issues did. The Episcopal
Church was cleft into a reform movement (and one unreformable). In
his own denomination internal discord raged over such questions as
diabolic pleasures and Apostolic music. He saw young people haled
before the pulpit as before a tribunal of exact statutes and
expelled for moving their feet in certain ways. If in dancing they
whirled like a top instead of being shot straight back and forth
like a bobbin in a weaver’s shuttle, their moral conduct was
aggravated. A church organ was ridiculed as a sort of musical
Behemoth–as a dark chamber of howling, roaring Belial.

These controversies overflowed from the congregation to the Bible
College. The lad in his room at the dormitory one Sunday afternoon
heard a debate on whether a tuning fork is a violation of the word
of God. The debaters turned to him excited and angry:–

“What do you think?” they asked.

“I don’t think it is worth talking about,” he replied quietly.

They soon became reconciled to each other; they never forgave him.

Meantime as for his Biblical studies, they enlarged enormously his
knowledge of the Bible; but they added enormously to the questions
that may be asked about the Bible–questions he had never thought
of before. And in adding to the questions that may be asked, they
multiplied those that cannot be answered. The lad began to ask
these questions, began to get no answers. The ground of his
interest in the great Book shifted. Out on the farm alone with it
for two years, reading it never with a critical but always with a
worshipping mind, it had been to him simply the summons to a great
and good life, earthly and immortal. As he sat in the lecture
rooms, studying it book by book, paragraph by paragraph, writing
chalk notes about it on the blackboard, hearing the students recite
it as they recited arithmetic or rhetoric, a little homesickness
overcame him for the hours when he had read it at the end of a
furrow in the fields, or by his candle the last thing at night
before he kneeled to say his prayers, or of Sunday afternoons off
by himself in the sacred leafy woods. The mysterious untouched
Christ-feeling was in him so strong, that he shrank from these
critical analyses as he would from dissecting the body of the
crucified Redeemer.

A significant occurrence took place one afternoon some seven months
after he had entered the University.

On that day, recitations over, the lad left the college alone and
with a most thoughtful air crossed the campus and took his course
into the city. Reaching a great central street, he turned to the
left and proceeded until he stood opposite a large brick church.
Passing along the outside of this, he descended a few steps,
traversed an alley, knocked timidly at a door, and by a voice
within was bidden to enter. He did so, and stood in his pastor’s
study. He had told his pastor that he would like to have a little
talk with him, and the pastor was there to have the little talk.

During those seven months the lad had been attracting notice more
and more. The Bible students had cast up his reckoning unfavorably:
he was not of their kind–they moved through their studies as one
flock of sheep through a valley, drinking the same water, nipping
the same grass, and finding it what they wanted. His professors had
singled him out as a case needing peculiar guidance. Not in his
decorum as a student: he was the very soul of discipline. Not in
slackness of study: his mind consumed knowledge as a flame tinder.
Not in any irregularities of private life: his morals were as snow
for whiteness. Yet none other caused such concern.

All this the pastor knew; he had himself long had his eye on this
lad. During his sermons, among the rows of heads and brows and eyes
upturned to him, oftenest he felt himself looking at that big
shock-head, at those grave brows, into those eager, troubled eyes.
His persistent demonstrations that he and his brethren alone were
right and all other churches Scripturally wrong–they always seemed
to take the light out of that countenance. There was silence in the
study now as the lad modestly seated himself in a chair which the
pastor had pointed out.

After fidgeting a few moments, he addressed the logician with a
stupefying premise:–

“My great-grandfather,” he said, “once built a church simply to
God, not to any man’s opinions of Him.”

He broke off abruptly.

“So did Voltaire,” remarked the pastor dryly, coming to the rescue.
“Voltaire built a church to God: ‘Erexit deo Voltaire’ Your great-
grandfather and Voltaire must have been kin to each other.”

The lad had never heard of Voltaire. The information was rather

“I think I should admire Voltaire,” he observed reflectively.

“So did the Devil,” remarked the pastor. Then he added pleasantly,
for he had a Scotch relish for a theological jest:–

“You may meet Voltaire some day.”

“I should like to. Is he coming here?” asked the lad.

“Not immediately. He is in hell–or will be after the Resurrection
of the Dead.”

The silence in the study grew intense.

“I understand you now,” said the lad, speaking composedly all at
once. “You think that perhaps I will go to the Devil also.”

“Oh, no!” exclaimed the pastor, hiding his smile and stroking his
beard with syllogistic self-respect. “My dear young brother, did
you want to see me on any–BUSINESS?”

“I did. I was trying to tell you. My great-grandfather–”

“Couldn’t you begin with more modern times?”

“The story begins back there,” insisted the lad, firmly. “The part
of it, at least, that affects me. My great-grandfather founded a
church free to all Christian believers. It stands in our
neighborhood. I have always gone there. I joined the church there.
All the different denominations in our part of the country have
held services there. Sometimes they have all had services together.
I grew up to think they were all equally good Christians in their
different ways.”

“Did you?” inquired the pastor. “You and your grandfather and
Voltaire must ALL be kin to each other.”

His visage was not pleasant.

“My trouble since coming to College,” said the lad, pressing across
the interruption, “has been to know which IS the right church–”

“Are you a member of THIS church?” inquired the pastor sharply,
calling a halt to this folly.

“I am.”

“Then don’t you know that it is the only right one?”

“I do not. All the others declare it a wrong one. They stand ready
to prove this by the Scriptures and do prove it to their
satisfaction. They declare that if I become a preacher of what my
church believes, I shall become a false teacher of men and be
responsible to God for the souls I may lead astray. They honestly
believe this.”

“Don’t you know that when Satan has entered into a man, he can make
him honestly believe anything?”

“And you think it is Satan that keeps the other churches from
seeing this is the only right one?”

“I do! And beware, young man, that Satan does not get into YOU”

“He must be in me already.” There was silence again, then the lad

“All this is becoming a great trouble to me. It interferes with my
studies–takes my interest out of my future. I come to you then.
You are my pastor. Where is the truth–the reason–the proof–the
authority? Where is the guiding LAW in all this? I must find THE
LAW and that quickly.”

There was no gainsaying his trouble: it expressed itself in his
eyes, voice, entire demeanor. The pastor was not seeing any of
these things. Here was a plain, ignorant country lad who had
rejected his logic and who apparently had not tact enough at this
moment to appreciate his own effrontery. In the whole sensitiveness
of man there is no spot so touchy as the theological.

“Have you a copy of the New Testament?”

It was the tone in which the school-master of old times said,
“Bring me that switch.”

“I have,”

“You can read it?”

“I can.”

“You find in it the inspired account of the faith of the original
church–the earliest history of Apostolic Christianity?”

“I do.”

“Then, can you not compare the teachings of the Apostles, THEIR
faith and THEIR practice, with the teachings of this church? ITS
faith and ITS practice?”

“I have tried to do that”

“Then there is the truth. And the reason. And the proof. And the
authority. And the LAW. We have no creed but the creed of the
Apostolic churches; no practice but their practice; no teaching but
their teaching in letter and in spirit.”

“That is what was told me before I came to college. It was told me
that young men were to be prepared to preach the simple Gospel of
Christ to all the world. There was to be no sectarian theology.”

“Well? Has any one taught you sectarian theology?”

“Not consciously, not intentionally. Inevitably–perhaps. That is
my trouble now–ONE of my troubles.”


“May I ask you some questions?”

“You may ask me some questions if they are not silly questions. You
don’t seem to have any creed, but you DO seem to have a catechism!
Well, on with the catechism! I hope it will be better than those I
have read.”

So bidden, the lad began;–

“Is it Apostolic Christianity to declare that infants should not be

“It is!” The reply came like a flash of lightning.

“And those who teach to the contrary violate the word of God?”

“They do!”

“Is it Apostolic Christianity to affirm that only immersion is
Christian baptism?”

“It is!”

“And those who use any other form violate the word of God?”

“They do!”

“Is it Apostolic Christianity to celebrate the Lord’s Supper once
every seven days?”

“It is!”

“And all who observe a different custom violate the word of God?”

“They do!”

“Is it Apostolic Christianity to have no such officer in the church
as an Episcopal bishop?”

“It is!”

“The office of Bishop, then, is a violation of Apostolic

“It is!”

“Is it Apostolic Christianity to make every congregation, no matter
how small or influenced by passion, an absolute court of trial and
punishment of his members?”

“It is!”

“To give every such body control over the religious standing of its
members, so it may turn them out into the world, banish them from
the church of Christ forever, if it sees fit?”

“It is!”

“And those who frame any other system of church government violate

“They do!”

“Is it Apostolic Christianity to teach that faith precedes

“It is!”

“Those who teach that sorrow for sin is itself the great reason why
we believe in Christ–do they violate–?”

“They do!”

“Is it Apostolic Christianity to turn people out of the church for

“It is!”

“The use of an organ in worship–is that a violation of Apostolic–?”

“It is!”

“Is it Apostolic Christianity to require that the believer in it
shall likewise believe everything in the old Bible?”

“It is.”

“Did Christ and the Apostles themselves teach that everything
contained in what we call the old Bible must be believed?”

“They did!”

The pastor was grasping the arms of his chair, his body bent toward
the lad, his head thrown back, his face livid with sacred rage. He
was a good man, tried and true: God-fearing, God-serving. No fault
lay in him unless it may be imputed for unrighteousness that he was
a stanch, trenchant sectary in his place and generation. As he sat
there in the basement study of his church, his pulpit of authority
and his baptismal pool of regeneration directly over his head, all
round him in the city the solid hundreds of his followers, he
forgot himself as a man and a minister and remembered only that as
a servant of the Most High he was being interrogated and
dishonored. His soul shook and thundered within him to repel these
attacks upon his Lord and Master. As those unexpected random
questions had poured in upon him thick and fast, all emerging, as
it seemed to him, like disembodied evil spirits from the black pit
of Satan and the damned, it was joy to him to deal to each that
same straight,

God-directed spear-thrust of a reply–killing them as they rose.
His soul exulted in that blessed carnage.

But the questions ceased. They had hurried out as though there were
a myriad pressing behind–a few issuing bees of an aroused swarm.
But they ceased. The pastor leaned back in his chair and drew a
quivering breath through his white lips.

“Ask some more!”

On his side, the lad had lost divine passion as the pastor had
gained it. His interest waned while the pastor’s waxed. His last
questions were put so falteringly, almost so inaudibly, that the
pastor might well believe his questioner beaten, brought back to
modesty and silence. To a deeper-seeing eye, however, the truth
would have been plain that the lad was not seeing his pastor at
all, but seeing THROUGH him into his own future: into his life, his
great chosen life-work. His young feet had come in their travels
nigh to the limits of his Promised Land: he was looking over into

“Ask some more! The last of them! Out with them ALL! Make an end of
this now and here!”

The lad reached for his hat, which he had laid on the floor, and
stood up. He was as pale as the dead.

“I shall never be able to preach Apostolic Christianity,” he said,
and turned to the door.

But reaching it, he wheeled and came back.

“I am in trouble!” he cried, sitting down again. “I don’t know what
to believe. I don’t know what I do believe. My God!” he cried
again, burying his face in his hands. “I believe I am beginning to
doubt the Bible. Great God, what am I coming to! what is my life
coming to! ME doubt the Bible!”. . .

The interview of that day was one of the signs of two storms which
were approaching: one appointed to reach the University, one to
reach the lad.

The storm now gathering in many quarters and destined in a few
years to burst upon the University was like its other storms that
had gone before: only, this last one left it a ruin which will stay
a ruin.

That oldest, best passion of the Kentucky people for the
establishment in their own land of a broad institution of learning
for their own sons, though revived in David’s time on a greater
scale than ever before, was not to be realized. The new University,
bearing the name of the commonwealth and opening at the close of
the Civil War as a sign of the new peace of the new nation, having
begun so fairly and risen in a few years to fourth or fifth place
in patronage among all those in the land, was already entering upon
its decline. The reasons of this were the same that had
successively ruined each of its predecessors: the same old
sectarian quarrels, enmities, revenges; the same old political
oppositions and hatreds; the same personal ambitions, jealousies,

Away back in 1780, while every man, woman, and child in the western
wilderness ness was in dire struggle for life itself, those far-
seeing people had induced the General Assembly of Virginia to
confiscate and sell in Kentucky the lands of British Tories, to
found a public seminary for Kentucky boys–not a sectarian school.
These same broad-minded pioneers had later persuaded her to give
twenty thousand acres of her land to the same cause and to exempt
officers and students of the institution from military service.
Still later, intent upon this great work, they had induced Virginia
to take from her own beloved William and Mary one-sixth of all
surveyors’ fees in the district and contribute them. The early
Kentuckians, for their part, planned and sold out a lottery–to
help along the incorruptible work. For such an institution
Washington and Adams and Aaron Burr and Thomas Marshall and many
another opened their purses. For it thousands and thousands of
dollars were raised among friends scattered throughout the Atlantic
states, these responding to a petition addressed to all religious
sects, to all political parties. A library and philosophical
apparatus were wagoned over the Alleghanies. A committee was sent
to England to choose further equipments. When Kentucky came to have
a legislature of its own, it decreed that each of the counties in
the state should receive six thousand acres of land wherewith to
start a seminary; and that all these county seminaries were to
train students for this long-dreamed-of central institution. That
they might not be sent away–to the North or to Europe. When, at
the end of the Civil War, a fresh attempt (and the last) was made
to found in reality and in perpetuity a home institution to be as
good as the best in the republic, the people rallied as though they
had never known defeat. The idea resounded like a great trumpet
throughout the land. Individual, legislative, congressional aid–
all were poured out lavishly for that one devoted cause.

Sad chapter in the history of the Kentuckians! Perhaps the
saddest among the many sad ones.

For such an institution must in time have taught what all its
court-houses and all its pulpits–laws human and divine–have not
been able to teach: it must have taught the noble commonwealth to
cease murdering. Standing there in the heart of the people’s land,
it must have grown to stand in the heart of their affections: and
so standing, to stand for peace. For true learning always stands
for peace. Letters always stand for peace. And it is the scholar of
the world who has ever come into it as Christ came: to teach that
human life is worth saving and must be saved.


The storm approaching David was vaster and came faster.

Several days had passed since his anxious and abruptly terminated
interview with his pastor. During the interval he had addressed no
further inquiries to any man touching his religious doubts. A
serious sign: for when we cease to carry such burdens to those who
wait near by as our recognized counsellors and appointed guides,
the inference is that succor for our peculiar need has there been
sought in vain. This succor, if existent at all, will be found
elsewhere in one of two places: either farther away from home in
greater minds whose teaching has not yet reached us; or still
nearer home in what remains as the last court of inquiry and
decision: in the mind itself. With greater intellects more remote
the lad had not yet been put in touch; he had therefore grown
reflective, and for nearly a week had been spending the best powers
of his unaided thought in self-examination.

He was sitting one morning at his student’s table with his Bible
and note-book opened before him, wrestling with his problems still.
The dormitory was very quiet. A few students remained indoors at
work, but most were absent: some gone into the country to preach
trial sermons to trying congregations; some down in the town; some
at the college, practising hymns, or rehearsing for society
exhibitions; some scattered over the campus, preparing Monday
lessons on a spring morning when animal sap stirs intelligently at
its sources and sends up its mingled currents of new energy and new

David had thrown his window wide open, to let in the fine air; his
eyes strayed outward. A few yards away stood a stunted transplanted
locust–one of those uncomplaining asses of the vegetable kingdom
whose mission in life is to carry whatever man imposes. Year after
year this particular tree had remained patiently backed up behind
the dormitory, for the bearing of garments to be dusted or dried.
More than once during the winter, the lad had gazed out of his
snow-crusted panes at this dwarfed donkey of the woods, its feet
buried deep in ashes, its body covered with kitchen wash-rags and
Bible students’ frozen underwear. He had reasoned that such soil
and such servitude had killed it.

But as he looked out of his window now, his eyes caught sight of
the early faltering green in which this exile of the forest was
still struggling to clothe itself–its own life vestments. Its
enforced and artificial function as a human clothes-horse had
indeed nearly destroyed it; but wherever a bud survived, there its
true office in nature was asserted, its ancient kind declared, its
growth stubbornly resumed.

The moment for the lad may have been one of those in the
development of the young when they suddenly behold familiar objects
as with eyes more clearly opened; when the neutral becomes the
decisive; when the sermon is found in the stone. As he now took
curious cognizance of the budding wood which he, seeing it only in
winter, had supposed could not bud again, he fell to marvelling how
constant each separate thing in nature is to its own life and how
sole is its obligation to live that life only. All that a locust
had to do in the world was to be a locust; and be a locust it would
though it perished in the attempt. It drew back with no hesitation,
was racked with no doubt, puzzled with no necessity of preference.
It knew absolutely the law of its own being and knew absolutely
nothing else; found under that law its liberty, found under that
liberty its life.

“But I,” he reflected, “am that which was never sown and never
grown before. All the ages of time, all the generations of men,
have not fixed any type of life for me. What I am to become I must
myself each instant choose; and having chosen, I can never know
that I have chosen best. Often I do know that what I have selected
I must discard. And yet no one choice can ever be replaced by its
rejected fellow; the better chance lost once, is lost eternally.
Within the limits of a locust, how little may the individual
wander; within the limits of the wide and erring human, what may
not a man become! What now am I becoming? What shall I now choose–
as my second choice?”

A certain homely parallel between the tree and himself began to
shape itself before his thought: how he, too, had been dug up far
away–had, in a sense, voluntarily dug himself up–and been
transplanted in the college campus; how, ever since being placed
there, the different sectarian churches of the town had, without
exception, begun to pin on the branches of his mind the many-shaped
garments of their dogmas, until by this time he appeared to himself
as completely draped as the little locust after a heavy dormitory
washing. There was this terrible difference, however: that the
garments hung on the tree were anon removed; but these doctrines
and dogmas were fastened to his mind to stay–as the very foliage
of his thought–as the living leaves of Divine Truth. He was
forbidden to strip off one of those sacred leaves. He was told to
live and to breathe his religious life through them, and to grow
only where they hung.

The lad declared finally to himself this morning, that realize his
religious life through those dogmas he never could; that it was
useless any longer to try. Little by little they would as certainly
kill him in growth and spirit as the rags had killed the locust in
sap and bud. Whatever they might be to others–and he judged no
man–for him with his peculiar nature they could never be life-
vestments; they would become his spiritual grave-clothes.

The parallel went a little way further: that scant faltering green!
that unconquerable effort of the tree to assert despite all
deadening experiences its old wildwood state! Could he do the like,
could he go back to his? Yearning, sad, immeasurable filled him as
he now recalled the simple faith of what had already seemed to him
his childhood. Through the mist blinding his vision, through the
doubts blinding his brain, still could he see it lying there clear
in the near distance! “No,” he cried, “into whatsoever future I may
be driven to enter, closed against me is the peace of my past.
Return thither my eyes ever will, my feet never!”

“But as I was true to myself then, let me be true now. If I cannot
believe what I formerly believed, let me determine quickly what I
CAN believe. The Truth, the Law–I must find these and quickly!”

From all of which, though thus obscurely set forth, it will be
divined that the lad had now reached, indeed for some days had
stood halting, at one of the great partings of the ways: when the
whole of Life’s road can be walked in by us no longer; when we must
elect the half we shall henceforth follow, and having taken it,
ever afterward perhaps look yearningly back upon the other as a
lost trail of the mind.

The parting of the ways where he had thus faltered, summing up his
bewilderment, and crying aloud for fresh directions, was one
immemorially old in the history of man: the splitting of Life’s
single road into the by-paths of Doubt and Faith. Until within less
than a year, his entire youth had been passed in the possession of
what he esteemed true religion. Brought from the country into the
town, where each of the many churches was proclaiming itself the
sole incarnation of this and all others the embodiment of something
false, he had, after months of distracted wandering among their
contradictory clamors, passed as so many have passed before him
into that state of mind which rejects them all and asks whether
such a thing as true religion anywhere exists.

The parting of Life’s road at Doubt and Faith! How many pilgrim
feet throughout the ages, toiling devoutly thus far, have shrunk
back before that unexpected and appalling sign! Disciples of the
living Lord, saints, philosophers, scholars, priests, knights,
statesmen–what a throng! What thoughts there born, prayers there
ended, vows there broken, light there breaking, hearts there torn
in twain! Mighty mountain rock! rising full in the road of
journeying humanity. Around its base the tides of the generations
dividing as part the long racing billows of the sea about some
awful cliff.

The lad closed his note-book, and taking his chair to the window,
folded his arms on the sill and looked out. Soon he noticed what
had escaped him before. Beyond the tree, at the foot of the ash-
heap, a single dandelion had opened. It burned like a steadfast
yellow lamp, low in the edge of the young grass. These two simple
things–the locust leaves, touched by the sun, shaken by the south
wind; the dandelion shining in the grass–awoke in him the whole
vision of the spring now rising anew out of the Earth, all over the
land: great Nature! And the vision of this caused him to think of
something else.

On the Sunday following his talk with the lad, the pastor had
preached the most arousing sermon that the lad had heard: it had
grown out of that interview: it was on modern infidelity–the new
infidelity as contrasted with the old.

In this sermon he had arraigned certain books as largely
responsible. He called them by their titles. He warned his people
against them. Here recommenced the old story: the lad was at once
seized with a desire to read those books, thus exhibiting again the
identical trait that had already caused him so much trouble. But
this trait was perhaps himself–his core; the demand of his nature
to hear both sides, to judge evidence, test things by his own
reason, get at the deepest root of a matter: to see Truth, and to
see Truth whole.

Curiously enough, these books, and some others, had been much heard
of by the lad since coming to college: once; then several times;
then apparently everywhere and all the time. For, intellectually,
they had become atmospheric: they had to be breathed, as a newly
introduced vital element of the air, whether liked or not liked by
the breathers. They were the early works of the great Darwin,
together with some of that related illustrious group of scientific
investigators and thinkers, who, emerging like promontories,
islands, entire new countries, above the level of the world’s
knowledge, sent their waves of influence rushing away to every
shore. It was in those years that they were flowing over the United
States, over Kentucky. And as some volcanic upheaval under mid-
ocean will in time rock the tiny boat of a sailor boy in some
little sheltered bay on the other side of the planet, so the
sublime disturbance in the thought of the civilized world in the
second half of the nineteenth century had reached David.

Sitting at his window, looking out blindly for help and helpers
amid his doubts, seeing the young green of the locust, the yellow
of the dandelion, he recalled the names of those anathematized
books, which were described as dealing so strangely with nature and
with man’s place in it. The idea dominated him at last to go
immediately and get those books.

A little later he might have been seen quitting the dormitory and
taking his way with a dubious step across the campus into the town.

Saturday forenoons of spring were busy times for the town in those
days. Farmers were in, streets were crowded with their horses and
buggies and rockaways, with live stock, with wagons hauling cord-
wood, oats, hay, and hemp. Once, at a crossing, David waited while
a wagon loaded with soft, creamy, gray hemp creaked past toward a
factory. He sniffed with relish the tar of the mud-packed wheels;
he put out a hand and stroked the heads drawn close in familiar

Crowded, too, of Saturdays was the book-shop to which the students
usually resorted for their supplies. Besides town customers and
country customers, the pastor of the church often dropped in and
sat near the stove, discoursing, perhaps, to some of his elders, or
to reverent Bible students, or old acquaintances. A small, tight,
hot, metal-smelling stove–why is it so enjoyable by a dogmatist?

As David made his way to the rear of the long bookshelves, which
extended back toward the stove, the pastor rose and held out his
hand with hearty warmth–and a glance of secret solicitude. The
lad looked sheepish with embarrassment; not until accosted had he
himself realized what a stray he had become from his pastor’s flock
and fold. And he felt that he ought instantly to tell the pastor
this was the case. But the pastor had reseated himself and
regripped his masterful monologue. The lad was more than
embarrassed; he felt conscious of a new remorseful tenderness for
this grim, righteous man, now that he had emancipated mind and
conscience from his teaching: so true it often is that affection is
possible only where obedience is not demanded. He turned off
sorrowfully to the counter, and a few moments later, getting the
attention of the clerk, asked in a low conscience-stricken tone
for “The Origin of Species” and “The Descent of Man”; conscience-
stricken at the sight of the money in his palm to pay for them.

“What are you going to do with these?” inquired a Bible student who
had joined him at the counter and fingered the books.

“Read them,” said the lad, joyously, “and understand them if I

He pinned them against his heart with his elbow and all but ran
back to the dormitory. Having reached there, he altered his purpose
and instead of mounting to his room, went away off to a quiet spot
on the campus and, lying down in the grass under the wide open sky,
opened his wide Darwin.

It was the first time in his life that he had ever encountered
outside of the Bible a mind of the highest order, or listened to
it, as it delivered over to mankind the astounding treasures of its
knowledge and wisdom in accents of appealing, almost plaintive

That day the lad changed his teachers.

Of the session more than two months yet remained. Every few days he
might have been seen at the store, examining books, drawing money
reluctantly from his pocket, hurrying away with another volume.
Sometimes he would deliver to the clerk the title of a work written
on a slip of paper: an unheard-of book; to be ordered–perhaps from
the Old World. For one great book inevitably leads to another. They
have their parentage, kinship, generations. They are watch-towers
in sight of each other on the same human highway. They are strands
in a single cable belting the globe. Link by link David’s
investigating hands were slipping eagerly along a mighty chain of
truths, forged separately by the giants of his time and now welded
together in the glowing thought of the world.

Not all of these were scientific works. Some were works which
followed in the wake of the new science, with rapid applications of
its methods and results to other subjects, scarce conterminous or
not even germane. For in the light of the great central idea of
Evolution, all departments of human knowledge had to be reviewed,
reconsidered, reconceived, rearranged, rewritten. Every foremost
scholar of the world, kindling his own personal lamp at that
central sunlike radiance, retired straightway into his laboratory
of whatsoever kind and found it truly illuminated for the first
time. His lamp seemed to be of two flames enwrapped as one; a
baleful and a benign. Whenever it shone upon anything that was
true, it made this stand out the more clear, valuable, resplendent.
But wherever it uncovered the false, it darted thereat a swift
tongue of flame, consuming without mercy the ancient rubbish of the
mind. Vast purification of the world by the fire of truth! There
have been such purifications before; but never perhaps in the
history of the race was so much burned out of the intellectual path
of man as during the latter half of the nineteenth century.

There is a sort of land which receives in autumn, year by year, the
deposit of its own dead leaves and weeds and grasses without either
the winds and waters to clear these away or the soil to reabsorb
and reconvert them into the materials of reproduction. Thus year by
year the land tends farther toward sterility by the very
accumulation of what was once its life. But send a forest fire
across those smothering strata of vegetable decay; give once more a
chance for every root below to meet the sun above; for every seed
above to reach the ground below; soon again the barren will be the
fertile, the desert blossom as the rose. It is so with the human
mind. It is ever putting forth a thousand things which are the
expression of its life for a brief season. These myriads of things
mature, ripen, bear their fruit, fall back dead upon the soil of
the mind itself. That mind may be the mind of an individual; it may
be the mind of a century, a race, a civilization. To the
individual, then, to a race, a civilization, a century, arrives the
hour when it must either consume its own dead or surrender its own
life. These hours are the moral, the intellectual revolutions of

The new science must not only clear the stagnant ground for the
growth of new ideas, it must go deeper. Not enough that rubbish
should be burned: old structures of knowledge and faith, dangerous,
tottering, unfit to be inhabited longer, must be shaken to their
foundations. It brought on therefore a period of intellectual
upheaval and of drift, such as was once passed through by the
planet itself. What had long stood locked and immovable began to
move; what had been high sank out of sight; what had been low was
lifted. The mental hearing, listening as an ear placed amid still
mountains, could gather into itself from afar the slip and fall of
avalanches. Whole systems of belief which had chilled the soul for
centuries, dropped off like icebergs into the warming sea and
drifted away, melting into nothingness.

The minds of many men, witnessing this double ruin by flame and
earthquake, are at such times filled with consternation: to them it
seems that nothing will survive, that beyond these cataclysms there
will never again be stability and peace–a new and better age,
safer footing, wider horizons, clearer skies.

It was so now. The literature of the New Science was followed by a
literature of new Doubt and Despair. But both of these were
followed by yet another literature which rejected alike the New
Science and the New Doubt, and stood by all that was included under
the old beliefs. The voices of these three literatures filled the
world: they were the characteristic notes of that half-century,
heard sounding together: the Old Faith, the New Science, the New
Doubt. And they met at a single point; they met at man’s place in
Nature, at the idea of God, and in that system of thought and creed
which is Christianity.

It was at this sublime meeting-place of the Great Three that this
untrained and simple lad soon arrived–searching for the truth.
Here he began to listen to them, one after another: reading a
little in science (he was not prepared for that), a little in the
old faith, but most in the new doubt. For this he was ready; toward
this he had been driven.

Its earliest effects were soon exhibited in him as a student. He
performed all required work, slighted no class, shirked no rule,
transgressed no restriction. But he asked no questions of any man
now, no longer roved distractedly among the sects, took no share in
the discussions rife in his own church. There were changes more
significant: he ceased to attend the Bible students’ prayer-meeting
at the college or the prayer-meeting of the congregation in the
town; he would not say grace at those evening suppers of the
Disciples; he declined the Lord’s Supper; his voice was not heard
in the choir. He was, singularly enough, in regular attendance at
morning and night services of the church; but he entered timidly,
apologetically, sat as near as possible to the door, and slipped
out a little before the people were dismissed: his eyes had been
fixed respectfully on his pastor throughout the sermon, but his
thoughts were in other temples.


The session reached its close. The students were scattered far
among the villages, farms, cities of many states. Some never to
return, having passed from the life of a school into the school of
life; some, before vacation ended, gone with their laughter and
vigor into the silence of the better Teacher.

Over at the dormitory the annual breaking-up of the little band of
Bible students had, as always, been affecting. Calm, cool, bright
day of June! when the entire poor tenement house was fragrant with
flowers brought from commencement; when a south wind sent ripples
over the campus grass; and outside the campus, across the street,
the yards were glowing with roses. Oh, the roses of those young
days, how sweet, how sweet they were! How much sweeter now after
the long, cruel, evil suffering years which have passed and gone
since they faded!

The students were dispersed, and David sat at his table by his open
window, writing to his father and mother.

After telling them he had stood well in his classes, and giving
some descriptions of the closing days and ceremonies of the
college, for he knew how interested they would be in reading about
these things, he announced that he was not coming home. He enclosed
a part of the funds still on hand, and requested his father to hire
a man in his place to work on the farm during the summer. He said
nothing of his doubts and troubles, but gave as the reason of his
remaining away what indeed the reason was: that he wished to study
during the vacation; it was the best chance he had ever had,
perhaps would ever have; and it was of the utmost importance to him
to settle a great many questions before the next session of the
Bible College opened. His expenses would be small. He had made
arrangements with the wife of the janitor to take charge of his
room and his washing and to give him his meals: his room itself
would not cost him anything, and he did not need any more clothes.

It was hard to stay away from them. Not until separated, had he
realized how dear they were to him. He could not bear even to write
about all that. And he was homesick for the sight of the farm,–the
horses and cows and sheep,–for the sight of Captain. But he must
remain where he was; what he had to do must be done quickly–a
great duty was involved. And they must write to him oftener because
he would need their letters, their love, more than ever now. And so
God keep them in health and bless them. And he was their grateful
son, who too often had been a care to them, who could never forget
the sacrifices they had made to send him to college, and whose only
wish was that he might not cause them any disappointment in the

This letter drew a quick reply from his father. He returned the
money, saying that he had done better on the farm than he had
expected and did not need it, and that he had a man employed, his
former slave. Sorry as they were not to see him that summer, still
they were glad of his desire to study through vacation. His own
life had not been very successful; he had tried hard, but had
failed. For a longtime now he had been accepting the failure as
best he could. But compensation for all this were the new
interests, hopes, ambitions, which centred in the life of his son.
To see him a minister, a religious leader among men–that would be
happiness enough for him. His family had always been a religious
people. One thing he was already looking forward to: he wanted his
son to preach his first sermon in the neighborhood church founded
by the lad’s great-grandfather–that would be the proudest hour of
his life and in the lad’s mother’s. There were times in the past
when perhaps he had been hard on him, not understanding him; this
only made his wish the greater to aid him now in every way, at any
cost. When they were not talking of him at home, they were thinking
of him. And they blessed God that He had given them such a son. Let
him not be troubled about the future; they knew that he would never
disappoint them.

David sat long immovable before that letter.

One other Bible student remained. On the campus, not far from the
dormitory, stood a building of a single story, of several rooms. In
one of these rooms there lived, with his family, that tall, gaunt,
shaggy, middle-aged man, in his shiny black coat and paper collars,
without any cravats, who had been the lad’s gentle monitor on the
morning of his entering college. He, too, was to spend the summer
there, having no means of getting away with his wife and children.
Though he sometimes went off himself, to hold meetings where he
could and for what might be paid him; now preaching and baptizing
in the mountains; now back again, laboring in his shirt-sleeves at
the Pentateuch and the elementary structure of the English
language. Such troubles as David’s were not for him; nor science
nor doubt. His own age contained him as a green field might hold a
rock. Not that this kind, faithful, helpful soul was a lifeless
stone; but that he was as unresponsive to the movements of his time
as a boulder is to the energies of a field. Alive in his own
sublime way he was, and inextricably rooted in one ever-living book
alone–the Bible.

This middle-aged, childlike man, settled near David as his
neighbor, was forever a reminder to him of the faith he once had
had–the faith of his earliest youth, the faith of his father and
mother. Sometimes when the day’s work was done and the sober, still
twilights came on, this reverent soul, sitting with his family
gathered about him near the threshold of his single homeless room,
–his oldest boy standing beside his chair, his wife holding in her
lap the sleeping babe she had just nursed,–would begin to sing.
The son’s voice joined the father’s; the wife’s followed the son’s,
in their usual hymn:–

“How firm a foundation, ye saints of the Lord,
Is laid for your faith in His excellent word.”

Up in his room, a few hundred yards away, the lad that moment might
be trimming his lamp for a little more reading. More than once he
waited, listening in the darkness, to the reliant music of the
stalwart, stern old poem. How devotedly he too had been used to
sing it!

That summer through, then, he kept on at the work of trying to
settle things before college reopened–things which involved a
great duty. Where the new thought of the age attacked dogma,
Revelation, Christianity most, there most he read. He was not the
only reader. He was one of a multitude which no man could know or
number; for many read in secret. Ministers of the Gospel read in
secret in their libraries, and locked the books away when their
church officers called unexpectedly. On Sunday, mounting their
pulpits, they preached impassioned sermons concerning faith–
addressed to the doubts, ravaging their own convictions and

Elders and deacons read and kept the matter hid from their pastors.
Physicians and lawyers read and spoke not a word to their wives and
children. In the church, from highest ecclesiastic and layman,
wherever in the professions a religious, scientific, scholarly
mind, there was felt the central intellectual commotion of those
years–the Battle of the Great Three.

And now summer was gone, the students flocking in, the session
beginning. David reentered his classes. Inwardly he drew back from
this step; yet take any other, throw up the whole matter,–that he
could not do. With all his lifelong religious sense he held on to
the former realities, even while his grasp was loosening.

But this could not endure. University life as a Bible student and
candidate for the ministry, every day and many times every day,
required of him duties which he could not longer conscientiously
discharge; they forced from him expressions regarding his faith
which made it only too plain both to himself and to others how much
out of place he now was.

So the crisis came, as come it must.

Autumn had given place to winter, to the first snows, thawing
during the day, freezing at night. The roofs of the town were
partly brown, partly white; icicles hung lengthening from the
eaves. It was the date on which the university closed for the
Christmas holidays–Friday afternoon preceding. All day through the
college corridors, or along the snow-paths leading to the town,
there had been the glad noises of that wild riotous time: whistle
and song and shout and hurrying feet, gripping hands, good wishes,
and good-bys. One by one the sounds had grown fewer, fainter, and
had ceased; the college was left in emptiness and silence, except
in a single lecture room in one corner of the building, from the
windows of which you looked out across the town and toward the
west; there the scene took place.

It was at the door of this room that the lad, having paused a
moment outside to draw a deep, quivering breath, knocked, and being
told to come in, entered, closed the door behind him, and sat down
white and trembling in the nearest chair. About the middle of the
room were seated the professors of the Bible College and his
pastor. They rose, and calling him forward shook hands with him
kindly, sorrowfully, and pointed to a seat before them, resuming
their own.

Before them, then, sat the lad, facing the wintry light; and there
was a long silence. Every one knew beforehand what the result would
be. It was the best part of a year since that first interview in
the pastor’s study; there had been other interviews–with the
pastor, with the professors. They had done what they could to check
him, to bring him back. They had long been counsellors; now in duty
they were authorities, sitting to hear him finally to the end, that
they might pronounce sentence: that would be the severance of his
connection with the university and his expulsion from the church.

Old, old scene in the history of Man–the trial of his Doubt by
his Faith: strange day of judgment, when one half of the human
spirit arraigns and condemns the other half. Only five persons sat
in that room–four men and a boy. The room was of four bare walls
and a blackboard, with perhaps a map or two of Palestine, Egypt,
and the Roman Empire in the time of Paul. The era was the winter of
the year 1868, the place was an old town of the Anglo-Saxon
backwoodsmen, on the blue-grass highlands of Kentucky. But in how
many other places has that scene been enacted, before what other
audiences of the accusing and the accused, under what laws of
trial, with what degrees and rigors of judgment! Behind David,
sitting solitary there in the flesh, the imagination beheld a
throng so countless as to have been summoned and controlled by the
deep arraigning eye of Dante alone. Unawares, he stood at the head
of an invisible host, which stretched backward through time till it
could be traced no farther. Witnesses all to that sublime,
indispensable part of man which is his Doubt–Doubt respecting his
origin, his meaning, his Maker, and his destiny. That perpetual
half-night of his planet-mind–that shadowed side of his orbit-
life–forever attracted and held in place by the force of Deity,
but destined never to receive its light. Yet from that chill, bleak
side what things have not reached round and caught the sun! And as
of the earth’s plants, some grow best and are sweetest in darkness,
what strange blossoms of faith open and are fragrant in that
eternal umbra! Sacred, sacred Doubt of Man. His agony, his
searching! which has led him always onward from more ignorance to
less ignorance, from less truth to more truth; which is the
inspiration of his mind, the sorrow of his heart; which has spoken
everywhere in his science, philosophy, literature, art–in his
religion itself; which keeps him humble not vain, changing not
immutable, charitable not bigoted; which attempts to solve the
universe and knows that it does not solve it, but ever seeks to
trace law, to clarify reason, and so to find whatever truth it can.

As David sat before his professors and his pastor, it was one of
the moments that sum up civilization.

Across the room, behind them also, what a throng! Over on that side
was Faith, that radiant part of the soul which directly basks in
the light of God, the sun. There, visible to the eye of
imagination, were those of all times, places, and races, who have
sat in judgment on doubters, actual or suspected. In whatsoever
else differing, united in this: that they have always held
themselves to be divinely appointed agents of the Judge of all the
earth: His creatures chosen to punish His creatures. And so behind
those professors, away back in history, were ranged Catholic popes
and Protestant archbishops, and kings and queens, Protestant and
Catholic, and great mediaeval jurists, and mailed knights and palm-
bearing soldiers of the cross, and holy inquisitors drowning poor
old bewildered women, tearing living flesh from flesh as paper,
crushing bones like glass, burning the shrieking human body to
cinders: this in the name of a Christ whose Gospel was mercy, and
by the authority of a God whose law was love. They were all there,
tier after tier, row above row, a vast shadowy colosseum of intent
judicial faces–Defenders of the Faith.

But no inquisitor was in this room now, nor punitive intention, nor
unkind thought. Slowly throughout the emerging life of man this
identical trial has gained steadily in charity and mildness.
Looking backward over his long pathway through bordering mysteries,
man himself has been brought to see, time and again, that what was
his doubt was his ignorance; what was his faith was his error; that
things rejected have become believed, and that things believed have
become rejected; that both his doubt and his faith are the
temporary condition of his knowledge, which is ever growing; and
that rend him faith and doubt ever will, but destroy him, never.

No Smithfield fire, then, no Jesuitical rack, no cup of hemlock, no
thumb-screw, no torture of any kind for David. Still, here was a
duty to be done, an awful responsibility to be discharged in sorrow
and with prayer; and grave good men they were. Blameless was this
lad in all their eyes save in his doubt. But to doubt–was not that
the greatest of sins?

The lad soon grew composed. These judges were still his friends,
not his masters. His masters were the writers of the books in which
he believed, and he spoke for them, for what he believed to be the
truth, so far as man had learned it. The conference lasted through
that short winter afternoon. In all that he said the lad showed
that he was full of many confusing voices: the voices of the new
science, the voices of the new doubt. One voice only had fallen
silent in him: the voice of the old faith.

It had grown late. Twilight was descending on the white campus, on
the snow-capped town. Away in the west, beyond the clustered house-
tops, there had formed itself the solemn picture of a red winter
sunset. The light entered the windows and fell on the lad’s face.
One last question had just been asked him by the most venerable and
beloved of his professors–in tones awe-stricken, and tremulous
with his own humility, and with compassion for the erring boy
before him,–

“Do you not even believe in God?”

Ah, that question! which shuts the gates of consciousness upon us
when we enter sleep, and sits close outside our eyelids as we
waken; which was framed in us ere we were born, which comes fullest
to life in us as life itself ebbs fastest. That question which
exacts of the finite to affirm whether it apprehends the Infinite,
that prodding of the evening midge for its opinion of the polar

“Do you not even believe in God?”

The lad stood up, he whose life until these months had been a
prayer, whose very slumbers had been worship. He stood up, from
some impulse–perhaps the respectful habit of rising when addressed
in class by this professor. At first he made no reply, but remained
looking over the still heads of his elders into that low red sunset
sky. How often had he beheld it, when feeding the stock at frozen
twilights. One vision rose before him now of his boyhood life at
home–his hopes of the ministry–the hemp fields where he had
toiled–his father and mother waiting before the embers this
moment, mindful of him. He recalled how often, in the last year, he
had sat upon his bedside at midnight when all were asleep, asking
himself that question:–

“Do I believe in God?”

And now he was required to lay bare what his young soul had been
able to do with that eternal mystery.

He thrust his big coarse hand into his breast-pocket and drew out a
little red morocco Testament which had been given him when he was
received into the congregation. He opened it at a place where it
seemed used to lie apart. He held it before his face, but could not
read. At last, controlling himself, he said to them with dignity,
and with the common honesty which was the life of him:–

“I read you a line which is the best answer I can give just now to
your last question.”

And so he read:–

“Lord, I believe; help Thou my unbelief!”

A few moments later he turned to another page and said to them:–

“These lines also I desire to read to you who believe in Christ and
believe that Christ and God are one. I may not understand them, but
I have thought of them a great deal:–”

“‘And if any man hear my words and believe not, I judge him not:
for I came not to judge the world but to save the world.'”

“‘He that rejecteth me and receiveth not my words, hath one that
judgeth him: the word that I have spoken, the same shall judge him
in the last day'”

He shut his Testament and put it back into his pocket and looked at
his judges.

“I understand this declaration of Christ to mean,” he said, “that
whether I believe in Him or do not believe in Him, I am not to be
judged till God’s Day of Judgment.”


A few days later David was walking across the fields on his way
home: it was past the middle of the afternoon.

At early candle-light that morning, the huge red stage-coach,
leaving town for his distant part of the country, had rolled,
creaking and rattling, to the dormitory entrance, the same stage
that had conveyed him thither. Throwing up his window he had looked
out at the curling white breath of the horses and at the driver,
who, buried in coats and rugs, and holding the lash of his whip in
his mittened fist, peered up and called out with no uncertain

The lad was ready. He hastily carried down the family umbrella and
the Brussels carpet valise with its copious pink roses, looking
strangely out of season amid all that hoar frost. Then he leaped
back upstairs for something which had been added to his worldly
goods since he entered college–a small, cheap trunk, containing a
few garments and the priceless books. These things the driver
stored in the boot of the stage, bespattered with mud now frozen.
Then, running back once more, the lad seized his coat and hat, cast
one troubled glance around the meaningless room which had been the
theatre of such a drama in his life, went over to the little table,
and blew out his Bible Student’s lamp forever; and hurrying down
with a cordial “all ready,” climbed to the seat beside the driver
and was whirled away.

He turned as he passed from the campus to take a last look at
Morrison College, standing back there on the hill, venerable,
majestical, tight-closed, its fires put out. As he crossed the city
(for there were passengers to be picked up and the mail-bag to be
gotten), he took unspoken leave of many other places: of the
bookstore where he had bought the masterpieces of his masters; of
the little Italian apple-man–who would never again have so simple
a customer for his slightly damaged fruit; of several tall, proud,
well-frosted church spires now turning rosy in the sunrise; of a
big, handsome house standing in a fashionable street, with black
coal smoke pouring out of the chimneys. There the friends of his
boyhood “boarded”; there they were now, asleep in luxurious beds,
or gone away for the holidays, he knew not which: all he did know
was that they were gone far away from him along life’s other

Soon the shops on each side were succeeded by homesteads; gradually
these stood farther apart as farm-houses set back from the
highroad; the street had become a turnpike, they were in open
country and the lad was on his way to his father and mother.

In the afternoon, at one of the stops for watering horses, he had
his traps and trappings put out. From this place a mud road wound
across the country to his neighborhood; and at a point some two
miles distant, a pair of bars tapped it as an outlet and inlet for
the travel on his father’s land.

Leaving his things at the roadside farmhouse with the promise that
he would return for them, the lad struck out–not by the lane, but
straight across country.

It was a mild winter day without wind, without character–one of
the days on which Nature seems to take no interest in herself and
creates no interest in others. The sky was overcrowded with low,
ragged clouds, without discernible order or direction. Nowhere a
yellow sunbeam glinting on any object, but vast jets of misty
radiance shot downward in far-diverging lines toward the world: as
though above the clouds were piled the waters of light and this
were scant escaping spray.

He walked on, climbing the fences, coming on the familiar sights of
winter woods and fields. Having been away from them for the first
time and that during more than a year, with what feelings he now
beheld them!

Crows about the corn shocks, flying leisurely to the stake-and-
ridered fence: there alighting with their tails pointing toward him
and their heads turned sideways over one shoulder; but soon
presenting their breasts seeing he did not hunt. The solitary caw
of one of them–that thin, indifferent comment of their sentinel,
perched on the silver-gray twig of a sycamore. In another field the
startled flutter of field larks from pale-yellow bushes of ground-
apple. Some boys out rabbit-hunting in the holidays, with red
cheeks and gay woollen comforters around their hot necks and jeans
jackets full of Spanish needles: one shouldering a gun, one
carrying a game-bag, one eating an apple: a pack of dogs and no
rabbit. The winter brooks, trickling through banks of frozen grass
and broken reeds; their clear brown water sometimes open, sometimes
covered with figured ice.

Red cattle in one distant wood, moving tender-footed around the
edge of a pond. The fall of a forest tree sounding distinct amid
the reigning stillness–felled for cord wood. And in one field–
right there before him!–the chopping sound of busy hemp brakes and
the sight of negroes, one singing a hymn. Oh, the memories, the

By and by he reached the edge of his father’s land, climbed to the
topmost rail of the boundary fence and sat there, his eyes glued to
the whole scene. It lay outspread before him, the entirety of that
farm. He had never realized before how little there was of it, how
little! He could see all around it, except where the woods hid the
division fence on one side. And the house, standing in the still
air of the winter afternoon, with its rotting roof and low red
chimneys partly obscured by scraggy cedars–how small it had
become! How poor, how wretched everything–the woodpile, the cabin,
the hen-house, the ice-house, the barn! Was this any part of the
great world? It was one picture of desolation, the creeping
paralysis of a house and farm. Did anything even move?

Something did move. A column of blue smoke moved straight and thin
from the chimney of his father’s and mother’s room. In a far corner
of the stable lot, pawing and nozzling some remnants of fodder,
were the old horses. By the hay-rick he discovered one of the
sheep, the rest being on the farther side. The cows by and by filed
slowly around from behind the barn and entered the doorless milking
stalls. Suddenly his dog emerged from one of those stalls, trotting
cautiously, then with a playful burst of speed went in a streak
across the lot toward the kitchen. A negro man issued from the
cabin, picked out a log, knocked the ashes out of his pipe in the
palm of his hand, and began to cut the firewood for the night.

All this did not occur at once: he had been sitting there a long
time–heart-sick with the thought of the tragedy he was bringing
home. How could he ever meet them, ever tell them? How would they
ever understand? If he could only say to his father: “I have sinned
and I have broken your heart: but forgive me.” But he could not say
this: he did not believe that he had done wrong. Yet all that he
would now have to show in their eyes would be the year of his
wasted life, and a trunk full of the books that had ruined him.

Ah, those two years before he had started to college, during which
they had lived happily together! Their pride in him! their self-
denial, affection–all because he was to be a scholar and a

He fancied he could see them as they sat in the house this moment,
not dreaming he was anywhere near. One on each side of the
fireplace; his mother wearing her black dress and purple shawl: a
ball of yarn and perhaps a tea-cake in her lap; some knitting on
her needles; she knit, she never mended. But his father would be
mending–leather perhaps, and sewing, as he liked to sew, with hog
bristles–the beeswax and the awls lying in the bottom of a chair
drawn to his side. There would be no noises in the room otherwise:
he could hear the stewing of the sap in the end of a fagot, the
ticking of one clock, the fainter ticking of another in the
adjoining room, like a disordered echo. They would not be talking;
they would be thinking of him. He shut his eyes, compressed his
lips, shook his head resolutely, and leaped down.

He had gone about twenty yards, when he heard a quick, incredulous
bark down by the house and his dog appeared in full view, looking
up that way, motionless. Then he came on running and barking
resentfully, and a short distance off stopped again.

“Captain,” he called with a quivering voice.

With ears laid back and one cry of joy the dog was on him. The lad
stooped and drew him close. Neither at that moment had any
articulate speech nor needed it. As soon as he was released, the
dog, after several leaps toward his face, was off in despair either
of expressing or of containing his joy, to tell the news at the
house. David laggingly followed.

As he stepped upon the porch, piled against the wall beside the
door were fagots as he used to see them. When he reached the door
itself, he stopped, gazing foolishly at those fagots, at the little
gray lichens on them: he could not knock, he could not turn the
knob without knocking. But his step had been heard. His mother
opened the door and peered curiously out.

“Why, it’s Davy!” she cried. “Davy! Davy!”

She dropped her knitting and threw her arms around him.

“David! David!” exclaimed his father, with a glad proud voice
inside. “Why, my son, my son!”

“Ah, he’s sick–he’s come home sick!” cried the mother, holding him
a little way off to look at his face. “Ah! the poor fellow’s sick!
Come in, come in. And this is why we had no letter! And to think
yesterday was Christmas Day! And we had the pies and the turkey!”

“My son, are you unwell–have you been unwell? Sit here, lie here.”

The lad’s face was overspread with ghastly pallor; he had lost
control of himself.

“I have not been sick. I am perfectly well,” he said at length,
looking from one to the other with forlorn, remorseful affection.
They had drawn a chair close, one on each side of him. “How are
you, mother? How are you, father?”

The change in HIM!–that was all they saw. As soon as he spoke,
they knew he was in good health. Then the trouble was something
else, more terrible. The mother took refuge in silence as a woman
instinctively does at such times; the father sought relief in

“What is the matter? What happened?”

After a moment of horrible silence, David spoke:–

“Ah, father! How can I ever tell you!”

“How can you ever tell me?”

The rising anger mingled with distrust and fear in those words! How
many a father knows!

“Oh, what is it!” cried his mother, wringing her hands, and
bursting into tears. She rose and went to her seat under the

“What have you done?” said his father, also rising and going back
to his seat.

There was a new sternness in his voice; but the look which returned
suddenly to his eyes was the old life-long look.

The lad sat watching his father, dazed by the tragedy he was

“It is my duty to tell you as soon as possible–I suppose I ought
to tell you now.”

“Then speak–why do you sit there–”

The words choked him.

“Oh! oh!–”

“Mother, don’t!–”

“What is it?”

“Father, I have been put out of college and expelled from the

How loud sounded the minute noises of the fire–the clocks–the
blows of an axe at the woodpile–the lowing of a cow at the barn.


The question was put at length in a voice flat and dead. It summed
up a lifetime of failure and admitted it. After an interval it was
put again:–


“I do not believe the Bible any longer. I do not believe in

“Oh, don’t do THAT!”

The cry proceeded from David’s mother, who crossed quickly and sat
beside her husband, holding his hand, perhaps not knowing her own

This, then, was the end of hope and pride, the reward of years of
self-denial, the insult to all this poverty. For the time, even the
awful nature of his avowal made no impression.

After a long silence, the father asked feebly:–


Suddenly he rose, and striding across to his son, struck him one
blow with his mind:–


It was a kick of the foot.


More than two months had passed. Twilight of closing February was
falling over the frozen fields. The last crow had flapped low and
straight toward the black wood beyond the southern horizon. No
sunset radiance streamed across the wide land, for all day a
solitude of cloud had stretched around the earth, bringing on the
darkness now before its time.

In a small hemp field on an edge of the vast Kentucky table-land, a
solitary breaker kept on at his work. The splintered shards were
piled high against his brake: he had not paused to clear them out
of his way except around his bootlegs. Near by, the remnant of the
shock had fallen over, clods of mingled frost and soil still
sticking to the level butt-ends. Several yards to windward, where
the dust and refuse might not settle on it, lay the pile of gray-
tailed hemp,–the coarsest of man’s work, but finished as
conscientiously as an art. From the warming depths of this, rose
the head and neck of a common shepherd dog, his face turned
uneasily but patiently toward the worker. Whatever that master
should do, whether understood or not, was right to him; he did not
ask to understand, but to love and to serve. Farther away in
another direction leaned the charred rind of a rotting stump. At
intervals the rising wind blew the ashes away, exposing live coals–
that fireside of the laborer, wandering with him from spot to spot
over the bitter lonely spaces.

The hemp breaker had just gone to the shock and torn away another
armful, dragging the rest down. Exhausting to the picked and
powerful, the work seemed easy to him; for he was a young man of
the greatest size and strength, moulded in the proportions which
Nature often chooses for her children of the soil among that
people. Striding rapidly back to his brake, the clumsy five-slatted
device of the pioneer Kentuckians, he raised the handle and threw
the armful of stalks crosswise between the upper and the lower
blades. Then swinging the handle high, with his body wrenched
violently forward and the strength of his good right arm put forth,
he brought it down. The CRASH, CRASH, CRASH could have been heard
far through the still air; for it is the office of those dull
blades to hack their way as through a bundle of dead rods.

A little later he stopped abruptly, with silent inquiry turning his
face to the sky: a raindrop had fallen on his hand. Two or three
drops struck his face as he waited. It had been very cold that
morning, too cold for him to come out to work. Though by noon it
had moderated, it was cold still; but out of the warmer currents of
the upper atmosphere, which was now the noiseless theatre of great
changes going forward unshared as yet by the strata below, sank
these icy globules of the winter rain. Their usual law is to freeze
during descent into the crystals of snow; rarely they harden after
they fall, covering the earth with sleet.

David, by a few quick circular motions of the wrist, freed his left
hand from the half-broken hemp, leaving the bundle trailing across
the brake. Then he hurried to the heap of well-cleaned fibre: that
must not be allowed to get wet. The dog leaped out and stood to one
side, welcoming the end of the afternoon labor and the idea of
returning home. Not many minutes were required for the hasty
baling, and David soon rested a moment beside his hemp, ready to
lift it to his shoulders. But he felt disappointed. There lay the
remnant of the shock. He had worked hard to finish it before sunset
Would there not still be time?

The field occupied one of the swelling knolls of the landscape; his
brake was set this day on the very crown of a hill. As he asked
himself that question, he lifted his eyes and far away through the
twilight, lower down, he saw the flash of a candle already being
carried about in the kitchen. At the opposite end of the house the
glow of firelight fell on the window panes of his father’s and
mother’s room. Even while he observed this, it was intercepted: his
mother thus early was closing the shutters for the night.

Too late! He gave up the thought of finishing his shock,
recollecting other duties. But he remained in his attitude a few
moments; for the workman has a curious unconscious habit of taking
a final survey of the scene of his labor before quitting it. David
now glanced first up at the sky, with dubious forethought of to-
morrow’s weather. The raindrops had ceased to fall, but he was too
good a countryman not to foresee unsettled conditions. The dog
standing before him and watching his face, uttered an uneasy whine
as he noted that question addressed to the clouds: at intervals
during the afternoon he had been asking his question also. Then
those live coals in the rind of the stump and the danger of sparks
blown to the hemp herds or brake, or fence farther away: David
walked over and stamped them out. As he returned, he fondled the
dog’s head in his big, roughened hand.

“Captain,” he said, “are you hungry?”

All at once he was attracted by a spectacle and forgot everything
else. For as he stood there beside his bale of hemp in the dead
fields, his throat and eyes filled with dust, the dust all over
him, low on the dark red horizon there had formed itself the solemn
picture of a winter sunset. Amid the gathering darkness the workman
remained gazing toward that great light–into the stillness of it–
the loneliness–the eternal peace. On his rugged face an answering
light was kindled, the glory of a spiritual passion, the flame of
immortal things alive in his soul. More akin to him seemed that
beacon fire of the sky–more nearly his real pathway home appeared
that distant road and gateway to the Infinite–than the flickering,
near house-taper in the valley below. Once before, on the most
memorable day of his life, David had beheld a winter sunset like
that; but then across the roofs of a town–roofs half white, half
brown with melting snow, and with lengthening icicles dripping in
the twilight.

Suddenly, as if to shut out troubled thoughts, he stooped and,
throwing his big, long arms about the hemp, lifted it to his
shoulder. “Come, Captain,” he called to his companion, and stalked
heavily away. As he went, he began to hum an ancient, sturdy hymn:–

“How firm a foundation, ye saints of the Lord,
Is laid for your faith in His excellent Word.
The flame shall not hurt thee; I only design
Thy dross to consume and thy gold to refine.”

He had once been used to love those words and to feel the rocklike
basis of them as fixed unshakably beneath the rolling sea of the
music; now he sang the melody only. A little later, as though he
had no right to indulge himself even in this, it died on the air;
and only the noise of his thick, stiffened boots could have been
heard crushing the frozen stubble, as he went staggering under his
load toward the barn.


When he reached the worm fence of the hemp field, he threw his
load from his shoulder upon the topmost rail, and, holding it there
with one hand, climbed over. He had now to cross the stable lot.
Midway of this, he passed a rick of hay. Huddled under the
sheltered side were the sheep of the farm, several in number and of
the common sort. At the sight of him, they always bleated
familiarly, but this evening their long, quavering, gray notes were
more penetrating, more insistent than usual. These sensitive,
gentle creatures, whose instincts represent the accumulating and
inherited experiences of age upon age of direct contact with
nature, run far ahead of us in our forecasting wisdom; and many a
time they utter their disquietude and warning in language that is
understood only by themselves. The scant flock now fell into the
wake of David, their voices blending in a chorus of meek elegiacs,
their fore feet crowding close upon his heels. The dog, yielding
his place, fell into their wake, as though covering the rear; and
so this little procession of friends moved in a close body toward
the barn.

David put his hemp in the saddle-house; a separate hemp-house they
were not rich enough to own. He had chosen this particular part of
the barn because it was dryest in roof and floor. Several bales of
hemp were already piled against the logs on one side; and besides
these, the room contained the harness, the cart and the wagon gear,
the box of tar, his maul and wedges, his saddle and bridle, and
sundry implements used in the garden or on the farm. It was almost
dark in there now, and he groped his way.

The small estate of his father, comprising only some fifty or sixty
acres, supported little live stock: the sheep just mentioned, a few
horses, several head of cattle, a sow and pigs. Every soul of these
inside or outside the barn that evening had been waiting for David.
They had begun to think of him and call for him long before he had
quit work in the field. Now, although it was not much later than
usual, the heavy cloud made it appear so; and all these creatures,
like ourselves, are deceived by appearances and suffer greatly from
imagination. They now believed that it was far past the customary
time for him to appear, that they were nearing the verge of
starvation; and so they were bewailing in a dejected way his
unaccountable absence and their miserable lot–with no one to

Scarcely had the rattling of the iron latch of the saddle-house
apprised them of his arrival before every dumb brute–dumb, as
dumb men say–experienced a cheerful change of mind, and began to
pour into his ears the eager, earnest, gratifying tale of its
rights and its wrongs. What honest voices as compared with the
human–sometimes. No question of sincerity could have been raised
by any one who heard THEM speak. It may not have been music; but
every note of it was God’s truth.

The man laughed heartily as he paused a moment and listened to that
rejoicing uproar. But he was touched, also. To them he was the
answerer of prayer. Not one believed that he ever refused to succor
in time of need, or turned a deaf ear to supplication. If he made
poor provision for them sometimes, though they might not feel
satisfied, they never turned against him. The barn was very old.
The chemical action of the elements had first rotted away the
shingles at the points where the nails pinned them to the roof;
and, thus loosened, the winds of many years had dislodged and
scattered them. Through these holes, rain could penetrate to the
stalls of the horses, so that often they would get up mired and
stiff and shivering; but they never reproached him. On the northern
side of the barn the weather-boarding was quite gone in places,
and the wind blew freely in. Of winter mornings the backs of the
cows would sometimes be flecked with snow, or this being stubbornly
melted by their own heat, their hides would be hung with dew-drops:
they never attributed that fact to him as a cruelty. In the whole
stable there was not one critic of his providence: all were of the
household of faith: the members being in good standing and full

Remembrance of this lay much in his mind whenever, as often, he
contrasted his association with his poor animals, and the troublous
problem of faith in his own soul. It weighed with especial
heaviness upon his heart, this nightfall in the barn, over which
hung that threatening sky. Do what he could for their comfort, it
must be insufficient in a rotting, windswept shelter like that. And
here came the pinch of conscience, the wrench of remorse: the small
sums of money which his father and mother had saved up at such a
sacrifice on the farm,–the money which he had spent lavishly on
himself in preparation, as he had supposed, for his high calling in
life,–if but a small part of that had been applied to the roof and
weather-boarding of the stable, the stock this night might have
been housed in warmth and safety.

The feeding and bedding attended to, with a basket of cobs in his
hand for his mother, he hurried away to the woodpile. This was in
the yard near the negro cabin and a hundred yards or more from the
house. There he began to cut and split the wood for the fires that
night and for next morning. Three lengths of this: first, for the
grate in his father’s and mother’s room–the best to be found among
the logs of the woodpile: good dry hickory for its ready blaze and
rousing heat; to be mixed with seasoned oak, lest it burn out too
quickly–an expensive wood; and perhaps also with some white ash
from a tree he had felled in the autumn. Then sundry back-logs and
knots of black walnut for the cabin of the two negro women (there
being no sense of the value of this wood in the land in those days,
nearly all of it going to the cabins, to the kitchens, to cord-
wood, or to the fences of the farm; while the stumps were often
grubbed up and burned on the spot). Then fuel of this same sort for
the kitchen stove. Next, two or three big armfuls of very short
sticks for the small grate in his own small room above stairs–a
little more than usual, with the idea that he might wish to sit up

There was scarce light enough to go by. He picked his logs from the
general pile by the feel of the bark; and having set his foot on
each, to hold it in place while he chopped, he struck rather by
habit than by sight. Loud and rapid the strokes resounded; for he
went at it with a youthful will, and with hunger gnawing him; and
though his arms were stiff and tired, the axe to him was always a
plaything–a plaything that he loved. At last, from under the
henhouse near by he drew out and split some pieces of kindling, and
then stored his axe in that dry place with fresh concern about soft
weather: for more raindrops were falling and the wind was rising.

Stooping down now, he piled the fagots in the hollow of his arm,
till the wood rose cold and damp against his hot neck, against his
ear, and carried first some to the kitchen; and then some to the
side porch of the house, where he arranged it carefully against the
wall, close to the door, and conveniently for a hand reaching
outward from within. As he was heaping up the last of it, having
taken three turns to the woodpile, the door was opened slowly, and
a slight, slender woman peered around at him.

“What makes you so late?”

Her tone betrayed minute curiosity rather than any large concern.

“I wanted to finish a shock, mother. But it isn’t much later than
usual; it’s the clouds. Here’s some good kindling for you in the
morning and a basket of cobs,” he added tenderly.

She received in silence the feed basket he held out to her, and
watched him as he kneeled, busily piling up the last of the fagots.

“I hope you haven’t cut any more of that green oak; your father
couldn’t keep warm.”

“This is hickory, dead hickory, with some seasoned oak. Father’ll
have to take his coat off and you’ll have to get a fan.”

There was a moment of silence.

“Supper’s over,” she said simply.

She held in one hand a partly eaten biscuit.

“I’ll be in soon now. I’ve nothing to do but kindle my fire.”

After another short interval she asked:

“Is it going, to snow?”

“It’s going to do something.”

She stepped slowly back into the warm room and closed the door.

David hurried to the woodpile and carried the sticks for his own
grate upstairs, making two trips of it. The stairway was dark; his
room dark and damp, and filled with the smell of farm boots and
working clothes left wet in the closets. Groping his way to the
mantelpiece, he struck a sulphur match, lighted a half-burned
candle, and kneeling down, began to kindle his fire.

As it started and spread, little by little it brought out of the
cheerless darkness all the features of the rough, homely, kind
face, bent over and watching it so impatiently and yet half
absently. It gave definition to the shapeless black hat, around the
brim of which still hung filaments of tow, in the folds of which
lay white splinters of hemp stalk. There was the dust of field and
barn on the edges of the thick hair about the ears; dust around the
eyes and the nostrils. He was resting on one knee; over the other
his hands were crossed–enormous, powerful, coarsened hands, the
skin so frayed and chapped that around the finger-nails and along
the cracks here and there a little blood had oozed out and dried.


When David came down to his supper, all traces of the day’s labor
that were removable had disappeared. He was clean; and his working
clothes had been laid aside for the cheap black-cloth suit, which
he had been used to wear on Sundays while he was a student. Grave,
gentle, looking tired but looking happy, with his big shock head of
hair and a face rugged and majestical like a youthful Beethoven. A
kind mouth, most of all, and an eye of wonderfully deep

The narrow, uncarpeted stairway down which he had noisily twisted
his enormous figure, with some amusement, as always, had brought
him to the dining room. This was situated between the kitchen and
his father’s and mother’s bedroom. The door of each of these stood
ajar, and some of the warmth of the stove on one side and of the
grate on the other dried and tempered the atmosphere.

His mother sat in her place at the head of the table, quietly
waiting for him, and still holding in one hand the partially eaten
biscuit As he took his seat, she rose, and, walking listlessly to
the kitchen door, made a listless request of one of the two negro
women. When the coffee had been brought in, standing, she poured
out a cup, sweetened, stirred, and tasted it, and putting the spoon
into it, placed it before him. Then she resumed her seat (and the
biscuit) and looked on, occasionally scrutinizing his face, with an
expression perhaps the most tragic that can ever be worn by
maternal eyes: the expression of a lowly mother who has given birth
to a lofty son, and who has neither the power to understand him,
nor the grace to realize her own inferiority.

She wore, as usual, a dress of plain mourning, although she had not
the slightest occasion to mourn–at least, from the matter of
death. In the throat of this was caught a large, thin, oval-shaped
breastpin, containing a plait of her own and her husband’s hair,
braided together; and through these there ran a silky strand cut
from David’s head when an infant, and long before the parents
discovered how unlike their child was to themselves. This
breastpin, with the hair of the three heads of the house
intertwined, was the only symbol in all the world of their harmony
or union.

Around her shoulders she had thrown, according to her wont, a home-
knit crewel shawl of black and purple. Her hair, thick and straight
and pasted down over the temples of her small head, looked like a
long-used wig. Her contracted face seemed to have accumulated the
wrinkles of the most drawn-out, careworn life. Yet she was not old;
and these were not the lines of care; for her years had been
singularly uneventful and–for her–happy. The markings were,
perhaps, inherited from the generations of her weather-beaten,
toiling, plain ancestors–with the added creases of her own
personal habits. For she lived in her house with the regularity and
contentment of an insect in a dead log. And few causes age the body
faster than such wilful indolence and monotony of mind as hers–the
mind, that very principle of physical youthfulness. Save only that
it can also kill the body ere it age it; either by too great
rankness breaking down at once the framework on which it has been
reared, or afterward causing this to give way slowly under the
fruitage of thoughts, too heavy any longer to be borne.

That from so dark a receptacle as this mother there should have
emerged such a child of light, was one of those mysteries that are
the perpetual delight of Nature and the despair of Science. This
did not seem one of those instances–also a secret of the great
Creatress–in which she produces upon the stem of a common rose a
bud of alien splendor. It was as if potter’s clay had conceived
marble. The explanation of David did not lie in the fact that such
a mother had produced him.

One of the truest marks of her small, cold mind was the rigid
tyranny exercised over it by its own worthless ideas. Had she not
sat beside her son while he ate, had she not denied herself the
comfort of the fireside in the adjoining room, in order that she
might pour out for him the coffee that was unfit to be drunk, she
would have charged herself with being an unfaithful, undutiful
mother. But this done, she saw no further, beheld nothing of the
neglect, the carelessness, the cruelty, of all the rest, part of
which this very moment was outspread beneath her eyes.

For at the foot of the table, where David’s father had sat, were
two partly eaten dishes: one of spare-rib, one of sausage. The
gravy in each had begun to whiten into lard. Plates heaped with
cornbread and with biscuit, poorly baked and now cold, were placed
on each side. In front of him had been set a pitcher of milk; this
rattled, as he poured it, with its own bluish ice. On all that
homely, neglected board one thing only put everything else to
shame. A single candle, in a low, brass candlestick in the middle
of the table, scarce threw enough light to reveal the scene; but
its flame shot deep into the golden, crystalline depths of a jar of
honey standing close beside it–honey from the bees in the garden–
a scathing but unnoticed rebuke from the food and housekeeping of
the bee to the food and housekeeping of the woman.

Work in the hemp fields leaves a man’s body calling in every tissue
for restoration of its waste. David had hardly taken his seat
before his eye swept the prospect before him with savage hope. In
him was the hunger, not of toil alone, but of youth still growing
to manhood, of absolute health. Whether he felt any mortification
at his mother’s indifference is doubtful. Assuredly life-long
experience had taught him that nothing better was to be expected
from her. How far he had unconsciously grown callous to things as
they were at home, there is no telling. Ordinarily we become in
such matters what we must; but it is likewise true that the first
and last proof of high personal superiority is the native,
irrepressible power of the mind to create standards which rise
above all experience and surroundings; to carry everywhere with
itself, whether it will or not, a blazing, scorching censorship of
the facts that offend it. Regarding the household management of his
mother, David at least never murmured; what he secretly felt he
alone knew, perhaps not even he, since he was no self-examiner. As
to those shortcomings of hers which he could not fail to see, for
them he unconsciously showed tenderest compassion.

She had indulged so long her sloth even in the operation of
thinking, that few ideas now rose from the inner void to disturb
the apathetic surface; and she did not hesitate to recur to any one
of these any number of times in a conversation with the same

“What makes you so late?”

“I wanted to finish a shock. Then there was the feeding, and the
wood to cut. And I had to warm my room up a little before I could

“Is it going to snow?”

“It’s hard to say. The weather looks very unsettled and
threatening. That’s one reason why I wanted to finish my shock.”

There was silence for a while. David was too ravenous to talk; and
his mother’s habit was to utter one sentence at a time.

“I got three fresh eggs to-day; one had dropped from the roost and
frozen; it was cracked, but it will do for the coffee in the

“Winter must be nearly over if the hens are beginning to lay: THEY
know. They must have some fresh nests.”

“The cook wants to kill one of the old ones for soup to-morrow.”

“What an evil-minded cook!”

It was with his mother only that David showed the new cheerfulness
that had begun to manifest itself in him since his return from
college. She, however, did not understand the reasons of this and
viewed it unfavorably.

“We opened a hole in the last hill of turnips to-day.”

She spoke with uneasiness.

“There’ll be enough to last, I reckon, mother.”

“You needn’t pack any more chips to the smoke-house: the last
meat’s smoked enough.”

“Very well, then. You shall have every basketful of them for your
own fire.”

“If you can keep them from the negroes: negroes love chips.”

“I’ll save them while I chop. You shall have them, if I have to
catch them as they fly.”

His hunger had been satisfied: his spirits began to rise.

“Mother, are you going to eat that piece of biscuit? If not, just
hand it over to me, please.”

She looked dryly down at the bread in her fingers: humor was denied
her–that playfulness of purest reason.

David had commenced to collect a plateful of scraps–the most
appetizing of the morsels that he himself had not devoured. He rose
and went out into the porch to the dog.

“Now, mother,” he said, reentering; and with quiet dignity he
preceded her into the room adjoining.

His father sat on one side of the fireplace, watching the open door
for the entrance of his son. He appeared slightly bent over in his
chair. Plainly the days of rough farm-work and exposure were over
for him, prematurely aged and housed. There was about him–about
the shape and carriage of the head–in the expression of the eye
most of all, perhaps,–the not wholly obliterated markings of a
thoughtful and powerful breed of men. His appearance suggested that
some explanation of David might be traceable in this quarter. For
while we know nothing of these deep things, nor ever shall, in the
sense that we can supply the proofs of what we conjecture; while
Nature goes ever about her ancient work, and we cannot declare that
we have ever watched the operations of her fingers, think on we
will, and reason we must, amid her otherwise intolerable mysteries.
Though we accomplish no more in our philosophy than the poor
insect, which momentarily illumines its wandering through the
illimitable night by a flash from its own body.

Lost in obscurity, then, as was David’s relation to his mother,
there seemed some gleams of light discernible in that between
father and son. For there are men whom nature seems to make use of
to connect their own offspring not with themselves but with earlier
sires. They are like sluggish canals running between far-separated
oceans–from the deeps of life to the deeps of life, allowing the
freighted ships to pass. And no more does the stream understand
what moves across its surface than do such commonplace agents
comprehend the sons who have sprung from their own loins. Here,
too, is one of Nature’s greatest cruelties to the parent.

As David’s father would not have recognized his remote ancestors if
brought face to face, so he did not discover in David the image of
them–the reappearance in the world, under different conditions, of
certain elements of character found of old in the stock and line.
He could not have understood how it was possible for him to
transmit to the boy a nature which he himself did not actively
possess. And, therefore, instead of beholding here one of Nature’s
mysterious returns, after a long period of quiescence, to her
suspended activities and the perpetuation of an interrupted type,
so that his son was but another strong link of descent joined to
himself, a weak one; instead of this, he saw only with constant
secret resentment that David was at once unlike him and his

These two had worked side by side year after year on the farm; such
comradeship in labor usually brings into consciousness again the
primeval bond of Man against Nature–the brotherhood, at least, of
the merely human. But while they had mingled their toil, sweat,
hopes, and disappointments, their minds had never met. The father
had never felt at home with his son; David, without knowing why–
and many a sorrowful hour it had cost him–had never accepted as
father the man who had brought him into the world. Each soon
perceived that a distance separated them which neither could cross,
though vainly both should try, and often both did try, to cross it.

As he sat in the chimney-corner to-night, his very look as he
watched the door made it clear that he dreaded the entrance of his
son; and to this feeling had lately been added deeper estrangement.

When David walked in, he took a seat in front of the fire. His
mother followed, bringing the sugar-bowl and the honey, which she
locked in a closet in the wall: the iron in her blood was
parsimony. Then she seated herself under the mantelpiece on the
opposite side and looked silently across at the face of her
husband. (She was his second wife. His offspring by his first wife
had died young. David was the only child of mature parents.) She
looked across at him with the complacent expression of the wife who
feels that she and her husband are one, even though their offspring
may not be of them. The father looked at David; David looked into
the fire. There was embarrassment all round.

“How are you feeling to-night, father?” he asked affectionately, a
moment later, without lifting his eyes.

“I’ve been suffering a good deal. I think it’s the weather.”

“I’m sorry.”

“Do you think it’s going to snow?”

The husband had lived so long and closely with his wife, that the
mechanism of their minds moved much like the two wall-clocks in
adjoining rooms of the house; which ticked and struck, year after
year, never quite together and never far apart. When David was
first with one and then with another, he was often obliged to
answer the same questions twice–sometimes thrice, since his mother
alone required two identical responses. He replied now with his
invariable and patient courtesy–yet scarcely patient, inasmuch as
this did not try him.

“What made you so late?”

David explained again.

“How much hemp did you break?”

“I didn’t weigh it, father. Fifty or sixty pounds, perhaps.”

“How many more shocks are there in the field?”

“Twelve or fifteen. I wish there were a hundred.”

“I wish so, too,” said David’s mother, smiling plaintively at her

“John Bailey was here after dinner,” remarked David’s father. “He
has sold his crop of twenty-seven acres for four thousand dollars.
Ten dollars a hundred.”

“That’s fine,” said David with enthusiasm, thinking regretfully of
their two or three acres.

“Good hemp lands are going to rent for twenty or twenty-five
dollars an acre in the spring,” continued his father, watching the
effect of his words.

David got up, and going to the door, reached around against the
wall for two or three sticks of the wood he had piled there. He
replenished the fire, which was going down, and resumed his seat.

For a while father and son discussed in a reserved way matters
pertaining to the farm: the amount of feed in the barn and the
chances of its lasting; crops to be sown in the spring, and in what
fields; the help they should hire–a new trouble at that time. For
the negroes, recently emancipated, were wandering hither and
thither over the farms, or flocking to the towns, unused to
freedom, unused to the very wages they now demanded, and nearly
everywhere seeking employment from any one in preference to their
former masters as part of the proof that they were no longer in
slavery. David’s father had owned but a single small family of
slaves: the women remained, the man had sought work on one of the
far richer estates in the neighborhood.

They threshed over once more the straw of these familiar topics and
then fell into embarrassed silence. The father broke this with an
abrupt, energetic exclamation and a sharp glance:–

“If hemp keeps up to what it is now, I am going to put in more.”

“Where?” asked the son, quietly. “I don’t see that we have any
ground to spare.”

“I’ll take the woods.”

“FATHER!” cried David, wheeling on him.

“I’ll take the woods!” repeated his father, with a flash of anger,
of bitterness. “And if I’m not able to hire the hands to clear it,
then I’ll rent it. Bailey wants it. He offered twenty-five dollars
an acre. Or I’ll sell it,” he continued with more anger, more
bitterness. “He’d rather buy it than rent.”

“How could we do without the woods?” inquired the son, looking like
one dazed,–“without the timber and the grazing?”

“What will we do without the woods?” cried his father, catching up
the words excitedly. “What will we do without the FARM?”

“What do you mean by all this, father? What is back of it?” cried
David, suddenly aroused by vague fears.

“I mean,” exclaimed the father, with a species of satisfaction in
his now plain words, “I mean that Bailey wants to buy the farm. I
mean that he urges me to sell out for my own good! tells me I must
sell out! must move! leave Kentucky! go to Missouri–like other men
when they fail.”

“Go to Missouri,” echoed the wife with dismal resignation, smiling
at her husband.

“Have you sold it?” asked David, with flushed, angry face.


“Nor promised?”


“Then, father, don’t! Bailey is trying again to get the farm away
from you. You and mother shall never sell your home and move to
Missouri on my account.”

The son sat looking into the fire, controlling his feelings. The
father sat looking at the son, making a greater effort to control
his. Both of them realized the poverty of the place and the need of

The hour was already past the father’s early bed-time. He
straightened himself up now, and turning his back, took off his
coat, hung it on the back of his chair, and began to unbutton his
waistcoat, and rub his arms. The mother rose, and going to the
high-posted bed in a corner of the room, arranged the pillows,
turned down the covers, and returning, sat provisionally on the
edge of her chair and released her breastpin. David started up.

“Mother, give me a candle, will you?”

He went over with her to the closet, waited while she unlocked it
and, thrusting her arm deep into its disordered depths, searched
till she drew out a candle. No good-night was spoken; and David,
with a look at his father and mother which neither of them saw,
opened and closed the door of their warm room, and found himself in
the darkness outside at the foot of the cold staircase.


A bed of crimson coals in the bottom of the grate was all that
survived of his own fire.

He sat down before it, not seeing it, his candle unlighted in his
hand, a tragedy in his eyes.

A comfortless room. Rag carpeting on the floor. No rug softening
the hearth-stones. The sashes of the windows loose in the frames
and shaken to-night by twisty gusts. A pane of glass in one had
been broken and the opening pasted over with a sheet of letter
paper. This had been burst by an indolent hand, thrust through to
close the shutters outside; and a current of cold air now swept
across the small room. The man felt it, shook himself free of
depressing thoughts, rose resolutely. He took from a closet one of
his most worthless coats, and rolling it into a wad, stopped the
hole. Going back to the grate, he piled on the wood, watching the
blaze as it rushed up over the logs, devouring the dried lichens on
the bark; then sinking back to the bottom rounds, where it must
slowly rise again, reducing the wood to ashes. Beside him as he sat
in his rush-bottomed chair stood a small square table and on this a
low brass candlestick, the companion of the one in the dining room.
A half-burnt candle rose out of the socket. As David now lighted it
and laid the long fresh candle alongside the snuffers, he measured
with his eye the length of his luminaries and the amount of his
wood–two friends. The little grate had commenced to roar at him
bravely, affectionately; and the candle sputtered to him and threw
sparks into the air–the rockets of its welcoming flame.

It was not yet ten o’clock: two hours of the long winter evening
remained. He turned to his treasury.

This was a trunk in a corner, the trunk he had bought while at
college, small and cheap in itself, not in what it held. For here
were David’s books–the great grave books which had been the making
of him, or the undoing of him, according as one may have enough of
God’s wisdom and mercy to decide whether it were the one or the

As the man now moved his chair over, lifted the lid, and sat gazing
down at the backs of them, arranged in a beautiful order of his
own, there was in the lofty, solemn look of him some further
evidence of their power over him. The coarse toil of the day was
forgotten; his loved dependent animals in the wind-swept barn
forgotten; the evening with his father and mother, the unalterable
emptiness of it, the unkindness, the threatening tragedy,
forgotten. Not that desolate room with firelight and candle; not
the poor farmhouse; not the meagre farm, nor the whole broad
Kentucky plateau of fields and woods, heavy with winter wealth,
heavy with comfortable homesteads–any longer held him as domicile,
or native region: he was gone far away into the company of his
high-minded masters, the writers of those books. Choosing one, he
closed the lid of the trunk reluctantly over the rest, and with the
book in one hand and the chair in the other, went back to the fire.

An hour passed, during which, one elbow on the table, the shaded
side of his face supported in the palm of his hand, he read, scarce
moving except to snuff the wick or to lay on a fresh fagot. At the
end of this time other laws than those which the writer was tracing
began to assert their supremacy over David–the laws of strength
and health, warmth and weariness. Sleep was descending on him,
relaxing his limbs, spreading a quiet mist through his brain,
caressing his eyelids. He closed the pages and turned to his dying
fire. The book caused him to wrestle; he wanted rest.

And now, floating to him through that mist in his brain, as softly
as a nearing melody, as radiantly as dawning light, came the image
of Gabriella: after David had pursued Knowledge awhile he was ready
for Love. But knowledge, truth, wisdom before every other earthly
passion–that was the very soul of him. His heart yearned for her
now in this closing hour, when everything else out of his way,
field-work, stable-work, wood-cutting, filial duties, study, he was
alone with the thought of her, the newest influence in his life,
taking heed of her solely, hearkening only to his heart’s need of
her. In all his rude existence she was the only being he had ever
known who seemed to him worthy of a place in the company of his
great books. Had the summons come to pack his effects to-morrow
and, saying good-by to everything else, start on a journey to the
congenial places where his mighty masters lived and wrought, he
would have wished her alone to go with him, sharer of life’s
loftiness. Her companionship wherever he might be–to have just
that; to feel that she was always with him, and always one with
him; to be able to turn his eyes to hers before some vanishing
firelight at an hour like this, with deep rest near them side by

He lingered over the first time he had ever seen her; that
memorable twilight in the town, the roofs and chimneys of the
houses, half-white, half-brown with melting snow, outlined against
the low red sunset sky. He had not long before left the room in the
university where his trial had taken place, and where he had
learned that it was all over with him. He was passing along one of
the narrow cross streets, when at a certain point his course was
barred by a heap of fresh cedar boughs, just thrown out of a wagon.
Some children were gay and busy, carrying them through the side
doors, the sexton aiding. Other children inside the lighted church
were practising a carol to organ music; the choir of their voices
swelled out through the open doors, and some of the little ones,
tugging at the cedar, took up the strain.

She was standing on the low steps of the church, in charge of the
children. In one hand she held an unfinished wreath, and she was
binding the dark, shining leaves with the other. A swarm of
snowflakes, scarce more than glittering crystals, danced merrily
about her head and flecked her black fur on one shoulder. As David,
not very mindful just then of whither he was going, stepped forward
across the light and paused before the pile of cedar boughs, she
glanced at him with a smile, seeing how his path was barred. Then
she said to them:–

“Hurry, children! The night comes when we cannot work!”

It was an hour of such good-will on earth to men that no one could
seem a stranger to her. He instantly became a human brother, next
of kin to her–that was all; she was wholly under the influence of
the innocence and purity within and without.

As he made no reply and for a moment did not move, she glanced
quickly at him, regretting the smile. When she saw his face, he saw
the joy go down out of hers; and he felt, as he turned off, that
she went with him along the black street: alone, he seemed not
alone any more.

Though he had been with her many times since, no later impression
had effaced one line of that first picture. There she stood ever to
him, and would stand: on the step of the church, smiling in her
mourning, binding her wreath, the jets of the chandelier streaming
out on her snow-sprinkled shoulder, the children carolling among
the fragrant cedar boughs scattered at her feet; she there,
decorating the church, happy to be of pious service. Ah, to have
her there in the room with him now; to be able to turn his eyes to
hers in the vanishing firelight, near sleep awaiting them, side by

There was the sound of a scratching on David’s window shutters, as
though a stiff brush were being moved up and down across the slats.
He became aware that this sound had reached him at intervals
several times already, but as often happens, had been disregarded
by him owing to his preoccupation. Now it was so loud as to force
itself positively upon his attention.

He listened, puzzled, wondering. His window stood high from the
ground and clear of any object. In a few moments, the sound made
itself audible again. He sprang up, wide awake now, and raising the
sash, pushed open the shutters–one of them easily; against the
other there was resistance from outside. This yielded before his
pressure; and as the shutter was forced wide open and David peered
out, there swung heavily against his cheek what felt like an
enormous brush of thorns, covered with ice. It was the end of one
of the limbs of the cedar tree which stood several feet from his
window on one side, and close to the wall of the house. Before
David was born, it had been growing there, a little higher, more
far-reaching laterally, every year, until several topmost boughs
had long since risen above the level of the eaves and dropped their
dry needles on the rotting shingles. Now one of the limbs, bent
over sidewise under its ice-freighted berries and twigs, hung as
low as his window, and the wind was tossing it.

Sleet! This, then, was the nature of the threatening storm, which
all day had made man and beast foreboding and distressed. David
held out his hand: rain was falling steadily, each drop freezing on
whatsoever it fell, adding ice to ice. The moon rode high by this
time; and its radiance pouring from above on the roof of riftless
cloud, diffused enough light below to render large objects near at
hand visible in bulk and outline. A row of old cedars stretched
across the yard. Their shapes, so familiar to him, were already
disordered. The sleet must have been falling for hours to have
weighed them down this way and that. A peculiarity of the night was
the wind, which increased constantly, but with fitful violence,
giving no warning of its high swoop, seizure, and wrench.

Sleet! Scarce a winter but he had seen some little: once, in his
childhood, a great one. He had often heard his father talk of
others which HE remembered–with comment on the destruction they
had wrought far and wide, on the suffering of all stock and of the
wild creatures. The ravage had been more terrible in the forests,
his father had thought, than what the cyclones cause when they rush
upon the trees, heavy in their full summer-leaves, and sweep them
down as easily as umbrellas set up on the ground. So much of the
finest forests of Kentucky had been lost through its annual summer
tempests and its rarer but more awful wintry sleets.

No work for him in the hemp fields to-morrow, nor for days. No
school for Gabriella; the more distant children would be unable to
ride; the nearest unable to foot it through the mirrored woods;
unless the weather should moderate before morning and melt the ice
away as quickly as it had formed–as sometimes was the case. A good
sign of this, he took it, was the ever rising wind: for a rising
wind and a falling temperature seldom appeared together. As he bent
his ear listening, he could hear the wild roar of the surges of air
breaking through the forest, the edge of which was not fifty yards

David sprang from his chair; there was a loud crack, and the great
limb of the cedar swept rattling down across his shutters, twisted,
snapped off at the trunk, rolled over in the air, and striking the
ground on its back, lay like a huge animal knocked lifeless.

He forgot bed and sleep and replenished his fire. His ear, trained
to catch and to distinguish sounds of country life, was now
becoming alive to the commencement of one of those vast appalling
catastrophes in Nature, for which man sees no reason and can detect
the furtherance of no plan–law being turned with seeming
blindness, and in the spirit of sheer wastage, upon what it has
itself achieved, and spending its sublime forces in a work of self-

Of the two windows in his room, one opened upon the back yard, one
upon the front. Both back yard and front contained, according to
the custom of the country, much shrubbery, with aged fruit trees,
mostly cherry and peach. There were locusts also at the rear of the
house, the old-time yard favorite of the people; other forest trees
stood around. Through both his windows there began to reach him a
succession of fragile sounds; the snapping of rotten, weakest, most
overburdened twigs. On fruit tree and forest tree these went down
first–as is also the law of storm and trial of strength among men.
The ground was now as one flooring of glass; and as some of these
small branches dropped from the tree-tops, they were broken into
fragments, like icicles, and slid rattling away into the nearest
depressions of the ground. Starting far up in the air sometimes,
they struck sheer upon other lower branches, bringing them along
also; this gathering weight in turn descended upon others lower
yet, until, so augmented, the entire mass swept downward and fell,
shivered against crystal flooring.

But soon these more trivial facts held his attention no longer:
they were the mere reconnaissance of the elements–the first light
attack of Nature upon her own weakness. By and by from the surging,
roaring depths of the woods, there suddenly reverberated to him a
deep boom as of a cannon: one of the great trees–two-forked at
the mighty summit and already burdened in each half by its tons of
timber, split in twain at the fork as though cleft by lightning;
and now only the pointed trunk stood like a funeral shaft above its
own ruins. For hours this went on: the light incessant rattling,
closest around; the creaking, straining, tearing apart as of
suffering flesh, less near; the sad, sublime booming of the forest.

Now the man would walk the floor; now drop into his chair before
the fire. His last bit of candle flickered blue, deep in the
socket, and sent up its smoke. His wood was soon burnt out: only
red coals in the bottom of the grate then, and these fast
whitening. More than once he strode across and stood over his trunk
in the shadowy corner–looking down at his books–those books that
had guided him thus far, or misguided him, who can say?

When his candle gave out and later his fire, he jerked off his
clothes and getting into bed, rolled himself in the bedclothes and
lay listening to the mournful sublimity of the storm.

Toward three o’clock the weather grew colder, the wind died down,
the booming ceased; and David, turning wearily, over, with an
impulse to prayer, but with no prayer, went to sleep.


When David awoke late and drowsily the next morning after the
storm, he lay awhile, listening. No rending, crashing, booming in
the woods now, nor rattling of his window-frames. No contemplative
twitter of winter birds about the cedars in the yard, nor caw of
crow, crossing the house chimneys toward the corn shocks. All
things hushed, silent, immovable.

Following so quickly upon the sublime roar and ravage of the night
before, the stillness was disturbing. He sprang up and dressed
quickly–admonished by the coldness of his room–before hurrying to
his window to look out. When he tried the sash, it could not be
raised. He thrust his hand through the broken pane and tugged at
the shutters; they could not be shaken. Running downstairs to the
kitchen and returning with hot water, he melted away the ice
embedding the bolts and hinges.

A marvel of nature, terrible, beautiful, met his eyes: ice-rain and
a great frost Cloud, heavy still, but thinner than on the day
before, enwrapped the earth. The sun, descending through this
translucent roof of gray, filled the air beneath with a radiance as
of molten pearl; and in this under-atmosphere of pearl all earthly
things were tipped and hung in silver. Tree, bush, and shrub in the
yard below, the rose clambering the pillars of the porch under his
window, the scant ivy lower down on the house wall, the stiff
little junipers, every blade of grass–all encased in silver. The
ruined cedars trailed from sparlike tops their sweeping sails of
incrusted emerald and silver. Along the eaves, like a row of
inverted spears of unequal lengths, hung the argent icicles. No;
not spun silver all this, but glass; all things buried, not under a
tide of liquid silver, but of flowing and then cooling glass:
Nature for once turned into a glass house, fixed in a brittle mass,
nowhere bending or swaying; but if handled roughly, sure to be

The ground under every tree in the yard was strewn with boughs;
what must be the ruin of the woods whence the noises had reached
him in the night? Looking out of his window now, he could see
enough to let him understand the havoc, the wreckage.

He went at once to the stable for the feeding and found everything
strangely quiet–the stilling influence of a great frost on animal
life. There had been excitement and uneasiness enough during the
night; now ensued the reaction, for man is but one of the many
animals with nerves and moods. A catastrophe like this which covers
with ice the earth–grass, winter edible twig and leaf, roots and
nuts for the brute kind that turns the soil with the nose, such
putting of all food whatsoever out of reach of mouth or hoof or
snout–brings these creatures face to face with the possibility of
starving: they know it and are silent with apprehension of their
peril; know it perhaps by the survival of prehistoric memories
reverberating as instinct still. And there is another possible
prong of truth to this repression of their characteristic cries at
such times of frost: then it was in ages past that the species
which preyed on them grew most ravenous and far ranging. The
silence of the modern stable in a way takes the place of that
primeval silence which was a law of safety in the bleak fastnesses,
hunted over by flesh eating prowlers. It is the prudent
noiselessness of many a species to-day, as the deer and the moose.

The sheep, having enjoyed little shelter beside the hayrick, had
encountered the worst of the storm. When David appeared in the
stable lot, they beheld him at once; for their faces were bunched
expectantly toward the yard gate through which he must emerge. But
they spoke not a word to one another or to him as they hurried
slipping forward. The man looked them over pityingly, yet with
humor; for they wore many undesirable pendants of glass and silver
dangling under their bellies and down their tails.

“You shall come into the barn this night,” he vowed within himself.
“I’ll make a place for you this day.”

Little did he foresee what awful significance to him lay wrapped in
those simple words. Breakfast was ready when, carrying his
customary basket of cobs for his mother, he returned to the house.
One good result at least the storm had wrought for the time: it
drew the members of the household more closely together, as any
unusual event–danger, disaster–generally does. So that his
father, despite his outburst of anger the night previous, forgot
this morning his wrongs and disappointments and relaxed his
severity. During the meal he had much to recount of other sleets
and their consequences. He inferred similar consequences now if
snow should follow, or a cold snap set in: no work in the fields,
therefore no hemp-breaking, and therefore delay in selling the
crop; the difficulty of feeding and watering the stock; no hauling
along the mud roads, and little travel of any sort between country
and town; the making of much cord wood out of the fallen timber,
with plenty of stuff for woodpiles; the stopping of mill wheels on
the frozen creeks, and scarcity of flour and meal.

“The meal is nearly out now,” said David’s mother. “The negroes
waste it.”

“We might shell some corn to-day,” suggested David’s father,
hesitatingly. It was the first time since his son’s return from
college that he had ever proposed their working together.

“I’ll take a look at the woods first,” said David; “and then I want
to make a place in the stable for the sheep, father. They must come
under shelter to-night I’ll fix new stalls for the horses inside
where we used to have the corn crib. The cows can go where the
horses have been, and the sheep can have the shed of the cows: it’s
better than nothing. I’ve been wanting to do this ever since I came
home from college.”

A thoughtless, unfortunate remark, as connected with that shabby,
desperate idea of finding shelter for the stock–fresh reminder of
the creeping, spreading poverty. His father made no rejoinder; and
having finished his breakfast in silence, left the table.

His mother, looking across her coffeecup and biscuit at David,
without change of expression inquired,–

“Will you get that hen?”

“WHAT hen, mother?”

“I told you last night the cook wanted one of the old hens for soup
to-day. Will you get it?”

“No, mother; I will not get the hen for the cook; the cook will
probably get the hen for me.”

“She doesn’t know the right one.”

“But neither do I.”

“I want the blue dorking.”

“I have a bad eye for color; I might catch something gray.”

“I want the dorking; she’s stopped laying.”

“Is that your motive for taking her life? It would be a terrible
principle to apply indiscriminately!”

“The cook wants to know how she is to get the vegetables out of the
holes in the garden to-day–under all this ice.”

“How would she get the vegetables out of the garden under all this
ice if there were no one on the place but herself? I warrant you
she’d have every variety.”

“It’s a pity we are not able to hire a man. If we could hire a man
to help her, I wouldn’t ask you. It’s hard on the cook, to make her
suffer for our poverty.”

“A little suffering in that way will do her a world of good,” said
David, cheerily.

His mother did not hesitate, provocation or no provocation, to
sting and reproach him in this way.

She had never thought very highly of her son; her disappointment,
therefore, over his failure at college had not been keen. Besides,
tragical suffering is the sublime privilege of deep natures: she
escaped by smallness. Nothing would have made her very miserable
but hunger and bodily pains. Against hunger she exercised ceaseless
precautions; bodily pains she had none. The one other thing that
could have agitated her profoundly was the idea that she would be
compelled to leave Kentucky. It was hard for her to move about her
house, much less move to Missouri. Not in months perhaps did she
even go upstairs to bestow care upon, the closets, the bed, the
comforts of her son. As might be expected, she considered herself
the superior person of the family; and as often happens, she
imposed this estimate of herself upon her husband. The terrifying
vanity and self-sufficiency of the little-minded! Nature must set
great store upon this type of human being, since it is regularly
allowed to rule its betters.

But his father! David had been at home two months now, for this was
the last of February, and not once during that long ordeal of daily
living together had his father opened his lips either to reproach
or question him.

Letters had been received from the faculty, from the pastor; of
that David was aware; but any conversation as to these or as to the
events of which they were the sad consummation, his father would
not have. The gulf between them had been wide before; now it was

Yet David well foreknew that the hour of reckoning had to come,
when all that was being held back would be uttered. He realized
that both were silently making preparations for that crisis, and
that each day brought it palpably nearer. Sometimes he could even
see it threatening in his father’s eye, hear it in his voice. It
had reached the verge of explosion the night previous, with that
prediction of coming bankruptcy, the selling of the farm of his
Kentucky ancestors, the removal to Missouri in his enfeebled
health. Not until his return had David realized how literally his
father had begun to build life anew on the hopes of him. And now
feel with him in his disappointment as deeply as he might, sympathy
he could not openly offer, explanation he could not possibly give.
His life-problem was not his father’s problem; his father was
simply not in a position to understand. Doubt anything in the
Bible–doubt so-called orthodox Christianity–be expelled from the
church and from college for such a reason–where could his father
find patience or mercy for wilful folly and impiety like that?

Meantime he had gone to work; on the very day after his return he
had gone to work. Two sentences of his father’s, on the afternoon
of his coming home, had rung in David’s ears loud and ceaselessly
WAS NOTHING IN YOU?” The first assured him of the new footing on
which he stood: he was no longer desired under that roof. The
second summed up the life-long estimate which had been formed of
his character before he had gone away.

Therefore he had worked as never even in the old preparatory days.
So long as he remained there, he must at least earn daily bread.
More than that, he must make good, as soon as possible, the money
spent at college. So he sent away the hired negro man; he undertook
the work done by him and more: the care of the stock, the wood
cutting, everything that a man can be required to do on a farm in
winter. Of bright days he broke hemp. Nothing had touched David so
deeply as the discovery in one corner of the farm of that field of
hemp: his father had secretly raised it to be a surprise to him, to
help him through his ministerial studies. This David had learned
from his mother; his father had avoided mention of it: it might rot
in the field! In equal silence David had set about breaking it; and
sometimes at night his father would show enough interest merely to
ask some questions regarding the day’s work.

Yet, notwithstanding this impending tragedy with his father, and
distress at their reduced circumstances caused by his expenses at
college, David, during these two months, had entered into much new

The doubts which had racked him for many months were ended. He had
reached a decision not to enter the ministry; had stripped his mind
clean and clear of dogmas. The theologies of his day, vast, tangled
thickets of thorns overspreading the simple footpath of the pious
pilgrim mind, interfered with him no more. It was not now necessary
for him to think or preach that any particular church with which he
might identify himself was right, the rest of the human race wrong.
He did not now have to believe that any soul was in danger of
eternal damnation for disagreeing with him. Release from these
things left his religious spirit more lofty and alive than ever.

For, moreover, David had set his feet a brief space on the wide
plains of living-knowledge; he had encountered through their works
many of the great minds of his century, been reached by the sublime
thought-movements of his time, heard the deep roar of the spirit’s
ocean. Amid coarse, daily labor once more, amid the penury and
discord in that ruined farmhouse, one true secret of happiness with
David was the recollection of all the noble things of human life
which he had discovered, and to which he meant to work his way
again as soon as possible. And what so helps one to believe in God
as knowledge of the greatness of man?

Meantime, also, his mind was kept freshly and powerfully exercised.
He had discarded his old way of looking at Nature and man’s place
in it; and of this fundamental change in him, no better proof could
be given than the way in which he regarded the storm, as he left
the breakfast-table this morning and went to the woods.

The damage was unreckonable. The trees had not been prepared
against an event like that. For centuries some of them had
developed strength in root and trunk and branch to resist the winds
of the region when clad in all their leaves; or to carry the load
of these leaves weighted with raindrops; or to bear the winter
snows. Wise self-physicians of the forest! Removing a weak or
useless limb, healing their own wounds and fractures! But to be
buried under ice and then wrenched and twisted by the blast–for
this they had received no training: and thus, like so many of the
great prudent ones who look hourly to their well-being, they had
been stricken down at last by the unexpected.

“Once,” said David reverently to himself, beholding it all, “once I
should have seen in this storm some direct intention of the Creator
toward man, even toward me. It would have been a reminder of His
power; perhaps been a chastisement for some good end which I must
believe in, but could not discover. Men certainly once interpreted
storms as communications from the Almighty, as they did pestilence
and famine. There still may be in this neighborhood people who will
derive some such lesson from this. My father may in his heart
believe it a judgment sent on us and on our neighbors for my
impiety. Have not cities been afflicted on account of the presence
of one sinner? Thankful I am not to think in this way now of
physical law–not so to misconceive man’s place in Nature. I know
that this sleet, so important to us, is but one small incident in
the long history of the planet’s atmosphere and changing surface.
It is the action of natural laws, operating without regard to man,
though man himself may have had a share in producing it. It will
bring death to many a creature; indirectly, it may bring death to
me; but that would be among the results, not in the intention.”

He set his face to cross the wood–sliding, skating, steadying
himself against the trunks, driving his heels through the ice crust
The exercise was heating; his breath rose as a steam before his
face. Beyond the woods he crossed a field; then a forest of many
acres and magnificent timber, on the far edge of which, under the
forest trees and fronting a country lane, stood the schoolhouse of
the district. David looked anxiously, as he drew near, for any
signs of injury that the storm might have done. One enormous tree-
top had fallen on the fence. A limb had dropped sheer on the steps.
The entire yard was little better than a brush heap. He soon turned
away home relieved: he would be able to tell Gabriella to-night
that none of the windows had been broken nor the roof; only a new
woods scholar, with little feet and a big hard head and a bunch of
mistletoe in one hand, was standing on the steps, waiting for her
to open the door.

David’s college experience had effected the first great change in
him as he passed from youth to manhood; Gabriella had wrought the
second. The former was a fragment of the drama of man’s soul with
God; the latter was the drama of his heart with woman.

It had begun the day the former ended–in the gloom of that winter
twilight day, when he had quit the college after his final
interview with the faculty, and had wandered forlorn and dazed into
the happy town, just commencing to celebrate its season of peace on
earth and good will to man. He had found her given up heart and
soul to the work of decorating the church of her faith, the church
of her fathers.

When David met her the second time, it was a few days after his
return home. He was at work in the smoke-house. The meat had been
salted down long enough after the killing: it must be hung, and he
was engaged in hanging it. Several pieces lay piled inside the door
suitably for the hand. He stood with his back to these beside the
meat bench, scraping the saltpetre off a large middling and rubbing
it with red pepper. Suddenly the light of the small doorway failed;
and turning he beheld his mother, and a few feet behind her–David
said that he did not believe in miracles–but a few feet behind his
mother there now stood a divine presence. Believe it or not, there
she was, the miracle! All the bashfulness of his lifetime–it had
often made existence well-nigh insupportable–came crowding into
that one moment. The feeblest little bleat of a spring lamb too
weak to stand up for the first time would have been a deafening
roar in comparison with the silence which now penetrated to the
marrow of his bones. He faced the two women at bay, with one hand
resting on the middling.

“This is my son,” said his mother neutrally, turning to the young
lady. This information did not help David at all. He knew who HE
was. He took it for granted that every one present knew. The
visitor at once relieved the situation.

“This is the school-teacher,” she said, coloring and smiling. “I
have been teaching here ever since you went away. And I am now an
old resident of this neighborhood.”

Not a thing moved about David except a little smoke in the chimney
of his throat. But the young lady did not wait for more silence to
render things more tense. She stepped forward into the doorway
beside his mother and peered curiously in, looking up at the smoke-
blackened joists, at the black cross sticks on which the links of
sausages were hung, at the little heap of gray ashes in the ground
underneath with a ring of half-burnt chips around them, at the huge
meat bench piled with salted joints.

“And this is the way you make middlings?” she inquired, smiling at
him encouragingly.

The idea of that archangel knowing anything about middlings!
David’s mind executed a rudimentary movement, and his tongue and
lips responded feebly:–

“This is the way.”

“And this is the way you make hams, sugar-cured hams?”

“This is the way.”

“And this is the way you make–shoulders?”

“This is the way.”

David had found an answer, and he was going to abide by it while
strength and daylight lasted.

The young lady seemed to perceive that this was his intention.

“Let me see you HANG one,” she said desperately. “I have never seen
bacon hanged–or hung. I suppose as I teach grammar, I must use
both participles.”

David caught up the huge middling by the string and swung it around
in front of him, whereupon it slipped out of his nerveless fingers
and fell over in the ashes. It did not break the middling, but it
broke the ice.

“Can I help you?”

Those torturing, blistering words! David’s face got as red as
though it had been rubbed with red pepper and saltpetre both. The
flame of it seemed to kindle some faint spark of spirit in him. He
picked up the middling, and as he looked her squarely in the eye,
with a humorous light in his, he nodded at the pieces of bacon by
the entrance.

“Hang one of those,” he said, “if you’ve a mind.”

As he lifted the middling high, Gabriella noticed above his big red
hands a pair of arms like marble for lustre and whiteness (for he
had his sleeves rolled far back)–as massive a pair of man’s arms
as ever were formed by life-long health and a life-long labor and
life-long right living.

“Thank you,” she said, retreating through the door. “It’s all very
interesting. I have never lived in the country before. Your mother
told me you were working here, and I asked her to let me come and
look on. While I have been living in your neighborhood, you have
been living in my town. I hope you will come to see me, and tell me
a great deal.”

As she said this, David perceived that she, standing behind his
mother, looked at him with the veiled intention of saying far more.
He had such an instinct for truth himself, that truth in others was
bare to him. Those gentle, sympathetic eyes seemed to declare: “I
know about your troubles. I am the person for whom, without knowing
it, you have been looking. With me you can break silence about the
great things. We can meet far above the level of such poor scenes
as this. I have sought you to tell you this. Come.”

“Mother,” said David that evening, after his father had left the
table, dropping his knife and fork and forgetting to eat, “who was

He drew out all that could be drawn: that she had come to take
charge of the school the autumn he had gone away; that she was
liked as a teacher, liked by the old people. She had taken great
interest in HIM, his mother said reproachfully, and the idea of his
studying for the ministry. She had often visited the house, had
been good to his father and to her. This was her first visit since
she had gotten back; she had been in town spending the holidays.

David had begun to go to see Gabriella within a week. At first he
went once a week–on Saturday nights. Soon he went twice a week–
Wednesdays and Saturdays invariably. On that last day at college,
when he had spoken out for himself, he had ended the student and
the youth; when he met her, it was the beginning of the man: and
the new reason of the man’s happiness.

As he now returned home across the mile or more of country, having
satisfied himself as to the uninjured condition of the schoolhouse,
which had a great deal to do with Gabriella’s remaining in that
neighborhood, he renewed his resolve to go to see her to-night,
though it was only Friday. Had not the storm upset all regular laws
and customs?

Happily, then, on reaching the stable, he fell to work upon his
plan of providing a shelter for the sheep.

David felt much more at home in the barn than at the house. For the
stock saw no change in him. Believer or unbeliever, rationalist,
evolutionist, he was still the same to them. Upon them, in reality,
fell the ill consequences of his misspent or well-spent college
life; for the money which might have gone for shingles and joists
and more provender, had in part been spent on books describing the
fauna of the earth and the distribution of species on its surface.
Some had gone for treatises on animals under domestication, while
his own animals under domestication were allowed to go poorly fed
and worse housed. He had had the theory; they had had the practice.
But they apprehended nothing of all this. How many tragedies of
evil passion brutes escape by not understanding their owners! We of
the human species so often regret that individuals read each
other’s natures so dimly: let us be thankful! David was glad, then,
that this little aggregation of dependent creatures, his
congregation of the faithful, neither perceived the change in him,
nor were kept in suspense by the tragedy growing at the house.

They had been glad to see him on his return. Captain, who had met
him first, was gladdest, perhaps. Then the horses, the same old
ones. One of them, he fancied, had backed up to him, offering a
ride. And the cows were friendly. They were the same; their calves
were different. The sheep about maintained their number, their
increase by nature nearly balancing their decrease by table use.

One member of the flock David looked for in vain: the boldest,
gentlest–there usually is one such. Later on he found it
represented by a saddle blanket. After his departure for college,
his mother had conceived of this fine young wether in terms of
sweetbreads, tallow for chapped noses, and a soft seat for the
spine of her husband. Even the larded dame of the snow-white
sucklings had remembered him well, and had touched her snout
against his boots; so that hardly had he in the old way begun to
stroke her bristles, before she spoke comfortably of her joy, and
rolled heavily over in what looked like a grateful swoon.

No: his animals had not changed in their feelings toward him; but
how altered he in his understanding of them! He had formerly
believed that these creatures were created for the use of man–that
old conceited notion that the entire earth was a planet of
provisions for human consumption. It had never even occurred to him
to think that the horses were made but to ride and to work. Cows of
course gave milk for the sake of the dairy; cream rose on milk for
ease in skimming; when churned, it turned sour, that the family
might have fresh buttermilk. Hides were for shoes. The skin on
sheep, it was put there for Man’s woollens.

Now David declared that these beings were no more made for Man than
Man was made for them. Man might capture them, keep them in
captivity, break, train, use, devour them, occasionally exterminate
them by benevolent assimilation. But this was not the reason of
their being created: what that reason was in the Creator’s mind, no
one knew or would ever know.

“Man seizes and uses you,” said David, working that day in his
barn; “but you are no more his than he is yours. He calls you
dependent creatures: who has made you dependent? In a state of wild
nature, there is not one of you that Man would dare meet: not the
wild stallion, not the wild bull, not the wild boar, not even an
angry ram. The argument that Man’s whole physical constitution–
structure and function-shows that he was intended to live on beef
and mutton, is no better than the argument that the tiger finds man
perfectly adapted to his system as a food, and desires none better.
Every man-eating creature thinks the same: the wolf believes Man to
be his prey; the crocodile believes him to be his; an old lion is
probably sure that a man’s young wife is designed for his maw
alone. So she is, if he manages to catch her.”

As David said this rather unexpectedly to himself, he fell into a
novel revery, forgetting philosophy and brute kind. It was late
when David finished his work that day. Toward nightfall the cloud
had parted in the west; the sun had gone down with dark curtains
closing heavily over it. Later, the cloud had parted in the east,
and the moon had arisen amid white fleeces and floated above banks
of pearl. Shining upon all splendid things else, it illumined one
poor scene which must not be forgotten: the rear of an old barn, a
sagging roof of rotting shingles; a few common sheep passing in,
driven by a shepherd dog; and a big thoughtful boy holding the door

He had shifted the stock to make way for these additional
pensioners, putting the horses into the new stalls, the cows where
the horses had been, and the sheep under the shed of the cows. (It
is the horse that always gets the best of everything in a stable.)
He reproached himself that he did least for the creatures that
demanded least

“That’s the nature of man,” he said disapprovingly, “topmost of all

When he stepped out of doors after supper that night, the clouds
had hidden the moon. But there was light enough for him to see his
way across the ice fields to Gabriella. The Star of Love shone
about his feet.


When Gabriella awoke on that same morning after the storm, she too
ascertained that her shutters could not be opened. But Gabriella
did not go down into the kitchen for hot water to melt the ice from
the bolts and hinges. She fled back across the cold matting to the
high-posted big bed and cuddled down solitary into its warmth
again, tucking the counterpane under her chin and looking out from
the pillows with eyes as fresh as flowers. Flowers in truth
Gabriella’s eyes were–the closing and disclosing blossoms of a
sweet nature. Somehow they made you think of earliest spring, of
young leaves, of the flutings of birds deep within a glade sifted
with golden light, fragrant with white fragrance. They had their
other seasons: their summer hours of angry flash and swift
downpour; their autumn days of still depths and soberness, and
autumn nights of long, quiet rainfalls when no one knew. One season
they lacked: Gabriella’s eyes had no winter,

Brave spirit! Had nature not inclined her to spring rather than
autumn, had she not inherited joyousness and the temperamental
gayety of the well-born, she must long ago have failed, broken
down. Behind her were generations of fathers and mothers who had
laughed heartily all their days. The simple gift of wholesome
laughter, often the best as often the only remedy for so many
discomforts and absurdities in life–this was perhaps to be
accounted among her best psychological heirlooms.

Her first thought on awaking late this morning (for she too had
been kept awake by the storm) was that there could be no school.
And this was only Friday, with Saturday and Sunday to follow–three
whole consecutive days of holiday! Gabriella’s spirits invariably
rose in a storm; her darkest days were her brightest. The weather
that tried her soul was the weather which was disagreeable, but not
disagreeable enough to break up school. When she taught, she taught
with all her powers and did it well; when not teaching, she hated
it with every faculty and capacity of her being. And to discharge
patiently and thoroughly a daily hated work–that takes noble

Nothing in the household stirred below. The members of the family
had remained up far into the night. As for the negroes, they
understand how to get a certain profit for themselves out of all
disturbances of the weather. Gabriella was glad of the chance to
wait for the house-girl to come up and kindle her fire–grateful
for the luxury of lying in bed on Friday morning, instead of
getting up to a farmer’s early breakfast, when sometimes there were
candles on the table to reveal the localities of the food! How she
hated those candles, flaring in her eyes so early! How she loved
the mellow flicker of them at night, and how she hated them in the
morning–those early-breakfast candles!

In high spirits, then, with the certainty of a late breakfast and
no school, she now lay on the pillows, looking across with
sparkling eyes at last night’s little gray ridge of ashes under the
bars of her small grate. Those hearthstones!–when her bare soles
accidentally touched one on winter mornings, Gabriella was of the
opinion that they were the coldest bricks that ever came from a
fiery furnace. There was one thing in the room still colder: the
little cherrywood washstand away over on the other side of the big
room between the windows,–placed there at the greatest possible
distance from the fire! Sometimes when she peeped down into her
wash-pitcher of mornings, the ice bulged up at her like a white
cannon-ball that had gotten lodged on the way out. She jabbed at it
with the handle of her toothbrush; or, if her temper got the best
of her (or the worst), with the poker. Often her last act at night
was to dry her toothbrush over the embers so that the hair in it
would not be frozen in the morning.

Gabriella raised her head from the pillows and peeped over at the
counterpane covering her. It consisted of stripes of different
colors, starting from a point at the middle of the structure and
widening toward the four sides. Her feet were tucked away under a
bank of plum color sprinkled with salt; up her back ran a sort of
comet’s tail of puddled green. Over her shoulder and descending
toward her chin, flowed a broadening delta of well-beaten egg.

She was thankful for these colors. The favorite hue of the farmer’s
wife was lead. Those hearthstones–lead! The strip of oilcloth
covering the washstand–lead! The closet in the wall containing her
things–lead! The stair-steps outside–lead! The porches down
below–lead! Gabriella sometimes wondered whether this woman might
not have had lead-colored ancestors.

A pair of recalcitrant feet were now heard mounting the stair: the
flowers on the pillow closed their petals. When the negro girl
knelt down before the grate, with her back to the bed and the soles
of her shoes set up straight side by side like two gray bricks, the
eyes were softly opened again, Gabriella had never seen a head like
this negro girl’s, that is, never until the autumn before last,
when she had come out into this neighborhood of plain farming
people to teach a district school. Whenever she was awake early
enough to see this curiosity, she never failed to renew her study
of it with unflagging zest. It was such a mysterious, careful
arrangement of knots, and pine cones, and the strangest-looking
little black sticks wrapped with white packing thread, and the
whole system of coils seemingly connected with a central mental
battery, or idea, or plan, within. She studied it now, as the fire
was being kindled, and the kindler, with inflammatory blows of the
poker on the bars of the grate, told her troubles over audibly to
herself: “Set free, and still making fires of winter mornings; how
was THAT? Where was any freedom in THAT? Her wages? Didn’t she work
for her wages? Didn’t she EARN her wages? Then where did freedom
come in?”

One must look low for high truth sometimes, as we gather necessary
fruit on nethermost boughs and dig the dirt for treasure. The
Anglo-Saxon girl lying in the bed and the young African girl
kindling her fire–these two, the highest and the humblest types of
womanhood in the American republic–were inseparably connected in
that room that morning as children of the same Revolution. It had
cost the war of the Union, to enable this African girl to cast away
the cloth enveloping her head–that detested sign of her slavery–
and to arrange her hair with ancestral taste, the true African
beauty sense. As long as she had been a slave, she had been
compelled by her Anglo-Saxon mistress to wear her head-
handkerchief; as soon as she was set free, she, with all the women
of her race in the South, tore the head-handkerchief indignantly
off. In the same way, it cost the war of the Union to enable
Gabriella to teach school. She had been set free also, and the
bandage removed from her liberties. The negress had been empowered
to demand wages for her toil; the Anglo-Saxon girl had been
empowered to accept without reproach the wages for hers.

Gabriella’s memoirs might be writ large in four parts that would
really be the history of the United States, just as a slender seam
of gold can only be explained through the geology of the earth. But
they can also be writ so small that each volume may be dropped,
like certain minute-books of bygone fashions, into a waistcoat
pocket, or even read, as through a magnifying glass, entire on a
single page.

The first volume was the childhood book, covering the period from
Gabriella’s birth to the beginning of the Civil War, by which time
she was fourteen years old: it was fairy tale. These earliest
recollections went back to herself as a very tiny child living with
her mother and grandmother in a big white house with green window-
shutters, in Lexington–so big that she knew only the two or three
rooms in one ell. Her mother wore mourning for her father, and was
always drawing her to her bosom and leaving tears on her face or
lilylike hands. One day–she could not remember very well–but the
house had been darkened and the servants never for a moment ceased
amusing her–one day the house was all opened again and Gabriella
could not find her mother; and her grandmother, everybody else, was
kinder to her than ever. She did not think what kindness was then,
but years afterward she learned perfectly.

Very slowly Gabriella’s knowledge began to extend over the house
and outside it. There were enormous, high-ceiled halls and parlors,
and bedrooms and bedrooms and bedrooms. There were verandas front
and back, so long that it took her breath away to run the length of
one and return. Upstairs, front and back, verandas again,
balustraded so that little girls could not forget themselves and
fall off. The pillars of these verandas at the rear of the house
were connected by a network of wires, and trained up the pillars
and branching over the wires were coiling twisting vines of
wisteria as large as Gabriella’s neck. This was the sunny southern
side; and when the wisteria was blooming, Gabriella moved her
establishment of playthings out behind those sunlit cascades of
purple and green, musical sometimes with goldfinches.

The front of the house faced a yard of stately evergreens and great
tubs of flowers, oleander, crepe myrtle, and pomegranate. Beyond
the yard, a gravelled carriage drive wound out of sight behind
cedars, catalpa, and forest trees, shadowing a turfy lawn. At the
end of the lawn was the great entrance gate and the street of the
town, Gabriella long knew this approach only by her drives with her
grandmother. At the rear of the house was enough for her: a large
yard, green grazing lots for the stable of horses, and best of all
a high-fenced garden containing everything the heart could desire:
vegetables, and flowers; summer-houses, and arbors with seats;
pumps of cold water, and hot-houses of plants and grapes, and fruit
trees, and a swing, and gooseberry bushes–everything.

In one corner, the ground was too shaded by an old apple tree to be
of use: they gave this to Gabriella for her garden. She had
attached particularly to her person a little negress of about the
same age–her Milly, the color of a ripe gourd. So when in spring
the gardener began to make his garden, with her grandmother
sometimes standing over him, directing, Gabriella, taking her
little chair to the apple tree,–with some pretended needle-work
and a real switch,–would set Milly to work making hers. Nothing
that they put into the earth ever was heard of again, though they
would sometimes make the same garden over every day for a week. So
that more than once, forsaking seed, they pulled off the tops of
green things near by, planted these, and so had a perfect garden in
an hour.

Then Gabriella, seated under the apple tree, would order Milly to
water the flowers from the pump; and taking her switch and calling
Milly close, she would give her a sharp rap or two around the bare
legs (for that was expected), and tell her that if she didn’t stop
being so trifling, she would sell her South to the plantations.
Whereupon Milly, injured more in heart than legs, and dropping the
watering-pot, would begin to bore her dirty fists into her eyes.
Then Gabriella would say repentantly:–

“No, I won’t, Milly! And you needn’t work any more to-day. And you
can have part of my garden if you want it.”

Milly, smiling across the mud on her cheeks, would murmur:–

“You ain’ goin’ sell yo’ Milly down South, is you, Miss Gabriella?”

“_I_ won’t. But I’m not so sure about grandmother, Milly. You know
she WILL do it sometimes. Our cotton’s got to be picked by
SOMEBODY, and who’s to do it but you lazy negroes?”

In those days the apple tree would be blooming, and the petals
would sift down on Gabriella. Looking up at the marriage bell of
blossoms, and speaking in the language of her grandmother, she
would say:–

“Milly, when I grow up and get married, I am going to be married
out of doors in spring under an apple tree.”

“I don’ know whah _I_ gwine be married,” Milly would say with a
hoarse, careless cackle. “I ‘spec’ in a brier-patch.”

Gabriella’s first discovery of what meanness human nature can
exhibit was connected with this garden. So long as everything was
sour and green, she could play there by the hour; but as soon as
anything got ripe and delicious, the gate with the high latch was
shut and she could never enter it unguarded. What tears she shed
outside the fence as she peeped through! When they did take her in,
they always held her by the hand.

“DON’T hold my hand, Sam,” pleadingly to the negro gardener. “It’s
so HOT!”

“You fall down and hurt yourself.”

“How absurd, Sam! The idea of my falling down when I am walking
along slowly!”

“You get lost.”

“How can you say anything so amusing as that, Sam! Did I ever get
lost in here?”

“Snakes bite you.”

“Why do you think they’d bite ME, Sam? They have never been known
to bite anybody else.”

“You scratch yourself.”

“How can I scratch myself, Sam, when I’m not doing anything?”

“Caterpillars crawl on you.”

“They crawl on me when I’m not in the garden, Sam. So why do you
harp on THAT?”

Slowly they walked on–past the temptations of Eden.

“Please, let me try just once, Sam!”

“Try what, Miss Gabriella?”

“To see whether the snakes will bite me.”

“I couldn’t!”

“Then take me to see the grapes,” she would say wearily.

There they were, hanging under the glass: bunches of black and of
purple Hamburgs, and of translucent Malagas, big enough to have
been an armful!

“Just one, Sam, please.”

“Make you sick.”

“They never make me sick when I eat them in the house. They are
good for me! One COULDN’T make me sick. I’m sick because you DON’T
give it to me. Don’t I LOOK sick, Sam?”

The time came when Gabriella began to extend her knowledge to the
country, as she drove out beside her grandmother in the balmy
spring and early summer afternoons.

“What is that, grandmother?” she would say, pointing with her small
forefinger to a field by the turnpike.

“That is corn.”

“And what is that?”

“That is wheat.”

“And what is that?”

“Oats, Gabriella.”

“Oh, grandmother, what is THAT?”

“Tut, tut, child! Don’t you know what that is? That’s hemp. That is
what bales all our cotton.”

“Oh, grandmother, smell it!”

After this sometimes Gabriella would order the driver to turn off
into some green lane about sunset and press on till they found a
field by the way. As soon as they began to pass it, over into their
faces would be wafted the clean, cooling, velvet-soft, balsam
breath of the hemp. The carriage would stop, and Gabriella,
standing up and facing the field, would fill her lungs again and
again, smiling at her grandmother for approval. Then she would take
her seat and say quietly:–

“Turn round, Tom, and drive back. I have smelt it enough.”

These drives alone with her grandmother were for spring and early
summer only. Full summer brought up from their plantations in
Louisiana, Arkansas, and Mississippi, her uncles and the wives and
children of some of them. All the bedrooms in the big house were
filled, and Gabriella was nearly lost in the multitude, she being
the only child of the only daughter of her grandmother. And now
what happy times there were. The silks, and satins, and laces! The
plate, the gold, the cut glass! The dinners, the music, the
laughter, the wines!

Later, some of her uncles’ families might travel on with their
servants to watering places farther north. But in September all
were back again under the one broad Kentucky roof, stopping for the
beautiful Lexington fair, then celebrated all over the land; and
for the races–those days of the thoroughbred only; and until frost
fall should make it safe to return to the swamps and bayous, loved
by the yellow fever.

When all were departed, sometimes her grandmother, closing the
house for the winter, would follow one of her sons to his
plantation; thence later proceeding to New Orleans, at that time
the most brilliant of American capitals; and so Gabriella would see
the Father of Waters, and the things that happened in the floating
palaces of the Mississippi; see the social life of the ancient
French and Spanish city.

All that could be most luxurious and splendid in Kentucky during
those last deep, rich years of the old social order, was
Gabriella’s: the extravagance, the gayety, the pride, the lovely
manners, the selfishness and cruelty in its terrible, unconscious,
and narrow way, the false ideals, the aristocratic virtues. Then it
was that, overspreading land and people, lay the full autumn of
that sowing, which had moved silently on its way toward its fateful
fruits for over fifty years. Everything was ripe, sweet, mellow,
dropping, turning rotten.

O ye who have young children, if possible give them happy memories!
Fill their earliest years with bright pictures! A great historian
many centuries ago wrote it down that the first thing conquered in
battle are the eyes: the soldier flees from what he sees before
him. But so often in the world’s fight we are defeated by what we
look back upon; we are whipped in the end by the things we saw in
the beginning of life. The time arrived for Gabriella when the
gorgeous fairy tale of her childhood was all that she had to
sustain her: when it meant consolation, courage, fortitude,

A war volume, black, fiery, furious, awful–this comprised the
second part of her history: it contained the overthrow of half the
American people, and the downfall of the child princess Gabriella.
An idea–how negative, nerveless, it looks printed! A little group
of four ideas–how should they have power of life and death over
millions of human beings! But say that one is the idea of the right
of self-government–much loved and fought for all round the earth
by the Anglo-Saxon race. Say that a second is the idea that with
his own property a man has a right to do as he pleases: another
notion that has been warred over, world without end. Let these two
ideas run in the blood and passions of the Southern people. Say
that a third idea is that of national greatness (the preservation
of the Union), another idol of this nation-building race. Say that
the fourth idea is that of evolving humanity, or, at least, that
slave-holding societies must be made non-slave-holding–if not
peaceably, then by force of arms. Let these two ideas be running in
the blood and passions of the Northern people. Bring the first set
of ideas and the second set together in a struggle for supremacy.
By all mankind it is now known what the result was for the nation.
What these ideas did for one little girl, living in Lexington,
Kentucky, was part of that same sad, sublime history.

They ordered the grandmother across the lines, as a wealthy
sympathizer and political agent of the Southern cause; they seized
her house, confiscated it, used it as officers’ headquarters: in
the end they killed her with grief and care; they sent her sons,
every man of them, into the Southern armies, ravaged their
plantations, liberated their slaves, left them dead on the fields
of battle, or wrecked in health, hope, fortune. Gabriella, placed
in a boarding-school in Lexington at that last hurried parting with
her grandmother, stayed there a year. Then the funds left to her
account in bank were gone; she went to live with near relatives;
and during the remaining years of the war was first in one
household, then another, of kindred or friends all of whom
contended for the privilege of finding her a home. But at the close
of the war, Gabriella, issuing from the temporary shelters given
her during the storm, might have been seen as a snow-white pigeon
flying lost and bewildered across a black cloud covering half the

The third volume–the Peace Book in which there was no Peace: this
was the beginning of Gabriella, child of the Revolution. She did
not now own a human being except herself; could give orders to none
but herself; could train for this work, whip up to that duty, only
herself; and if, she was still minded to play the mistress–firm,
kind, efficient, capable–must be such a mistress solely to

By that social evolution of the race which in one country after
another had wrought the overthrow of slavery, she had now been
placed with a generation unique in history: a generation of young
Southern girls, of gentle birth and breeding, of the most delicate
nature, who, heiresses in slaves and lands at the beginning of the
war, were penniless and unrecognized wards of the federal
government at its close, their slaves having been made citizens and
their plantations laid waste. On these unprepared and innocent
girls thus fell most heavily not only the mistakes and misdeeds of
their own fathers and mothers but the common guilt of the whole
nation, and particularly of New England, as respects the original
traffic in human souls. The change in the lives of these girls was
as sudden and terrible as if one had entered a brilliant ballroom
and in the voice of an overseer ordered the dancers to go as they
were to the factories.

To the factories many of them went, in a sense: to hard work of
some sort–to wage-earning and wage-taking: sometimes becoming the
mainstay of aged or infirm parents, the dependence of younger
brothers and sisters. If the history of it all is ever written, it
will make pitiful, heroic, noble reading.

The last volume of Gabriella’s memoirs showed her in this field of
struggle–of new growth to suit the newer day. It was so unlike the
first volume as to seem no continuation of her own life. It began
one summer morning about two years after the close of the war–an
interval which she had spent in various efforts at self-help, at

On that morning, pale and trembling, but resolute, her face heavily
veiled, she might have been seen on her way to Water Street in
Lexington–a street she had heard of all her life and had been
careful never to enter except to take or to alight from a train at
the station. Passing quickly along until she reached a certain ill-
smelling little stairway which opened on the foul sidewalk, she
mounted it, knocked at a low black-painted plank door, and entered
a room which was a curiosity shop. There she was greeted by an
elderly gentleman, who united in himself the offices of
superintendent of schools, experimental astronomer, and
manufacturer of a high grade of mustard. She had presented herself
to be examined for a teacher’s certificate.

Fortunately for Gabriella this kindly old sage remembered well her
grandmother and her uncles: they had been connoisseurs; they had
for years bought liberally of his mustard. Her uncles had used it
first on their dinner tables as a condiment and afterward on their
foreheads and stomachs as a plaster. They had never failed to
praise it to his face–both for its power to draw an appetite and
for its power to withdraw an ache. In turn he now praised them and
asked the easiest questions. Gabriella, whose knowledge of
arithmetic was as a grain of mustard seed, and who spoke beautiful
English, but could not have parsed, “John, come here!”–received a
first-class certificate for the sake of the future and a box of
mustard in memory of the past.

Early in that autumn she climbed, one morning, into an old yellow-
red, ever muddied stage-coach (the same that David had ridden in)
and set out to a remote neighborhood, where, after many failures
otherwise, she had secured a position to teach a small country
school. She was glad that it was distant; she had a feeling that
the farther away it was from Lexington, the easier it would be to

Nearly all that interminable day, the mechanism of the stage and
the condition of the pike (much fresh-cracked limestone on it)
administered to Gabriella’s body such a massage as is not now known
to medical science. But even this was as nothing in comparison to
the rack on which she stretched every muscle of her mind. What did
she know about teaching? What kind of people would they be?

Late that mild September afternoon she began to find out The stage
stopped at the mouth of a lane; and looking out with deathly
faintness, Gabriella saw, standing beside a narrow, no-top buggy, a
big, hearty, sunburned farmer with his waist-coat half unbuttoned,
wearing a suit of butternut jeans and a yellow straw hat with the
wide brim turned up like a cow’s horns.

“Have you got my school-teacher in there?” he called out in a voice
that carried like a heavy, sweet-sounding bell. “And did you bring
me them things I told you to get?”

“Which is she?” he asked as he came over to the stage window and
peered in at the several travellers.

“How do you do, Miss Gabriella?” he said, taking his hat clear off
his big, honest, hairy, brown head and putting in a hand that would
have held several of Gabriella’s. “I’m glad to see you; and the
children have been crying for you. Now, if you will just let me
help you to a seat in the buggy, and hold the lines for a minute
while I get some things Joe’s brought me, we’ll jog along home. I’m
glad to see you. I been hearing a heap about you from the

Gabriella already loved him! When they were seated in the buggy, he
took up six-sevenths of the space. She was so close to him that it
scared her–so close that when he turned his head on his short,
thick neck to look at her, he could hardly see her.

“He has a little slip of a wife,” explained Gabriella to herself.
“I’m in her seat: that’s why he’s used to it.”

So SHE got used to it; and soon felt a frank comfort in being able
to nestle freely against him–to cling to him like a bat to a warm
wall. For cling sometimes she must. He was driving a sorrel fresh
from pasture, with long, ragged hoofs, burrs in mane and tail, and
a wild desire to get home to her foal; so that she fled across the
country–bridges, ditches, everything, frantic with maternal
passion. One circumstance made for Gabriella’s security: the buggy
tilted over toward him so low, that she could not conveniently roll
out: instead she felt as though she were being whirled around a
steep hillside.

Meantime, how he talked to her! Told her the school was all made
up: what families were going to send, and how many children from
each. They had all heard from the superintendent what a fine
teacher she was (not for nothing is it said that things are handed
along kindly in Kentucky)!

“Oh,” murmured Gabriella to herself, “if the family are only like
HIM!” The mere way in which he called her by her first name, as
though she were an old friend–a sort of old sweetheart of his whom
for some reason he had failed to marry–filled her with perfect

“That’s my house!” he said at last, pointing with extended arm and
whip (which latter he had no occasion to use) across the open

Gabriella followed his gesture with apprehensive eyes and beheld
away off a big comfortable-looking two-story brick dwelling with
white-washed fences around it and all sorts of white-washed houses
on one side or the other–a plain, sweet, country, Kentucky home,
God bless it! The whiteness won Gabriella at once; and with the
whiteness went other things just as good: the assurance everywhere
of thrift, comfort. Not a weed in sight, but September bluegrass,
deep flowing, or fresh-ploughed fields or clean stubble. Every rail
in its place on every fence; every gate well swung. Everything in
sight in the way of live stock seemed to Gabriella either young or
just old enough. The very stumps they passed looked healthy.

Her conjecture had been correct: the slender slip of a woman met
her at the side porch a little diffidently, with a modest smile;
then kissed her on the mouth and invited her in. The supper table
was already set in the middle of the room; and over in one corner
was a big white bed–with a trundle bed (not visible) under it.
Gabriella “took off her things” and laid them on the snowy
counterpane; and the housewife told her she would let the children
entertain her for a few minutes while she saw about supper.

The children accepted the agreement. They swarmed about her as
about a new cake. Two or three of the youngest began to climb over
her as they climbed over the ice-house, to sit on her as they sat
on the stiles. The oldest produced their geographies and
arithmetics and showed her how far they had gone. (They had gone a
great deal farther than Gabriella!) No one paid the least attention
to any one else, or stood in awe of anything or anybody: Fear had
never come to that Jungle!

But trouble must enter into the affairs of this world, and it
entered that night into Gabriella.

At supper the farmer, having picked out for her the best piece of
the breast of the fried chicken, inquired in a voice which implied
how cordially superfluous the question was:–

“Miss Gabriella, will you have cream gravy?”

“No, thank you.”

The shock to that family! Not take cream gravy! What kind of a
teacher was that, now? Every small hand, old enough to use a knife
or fork, held it suspended. At the foot of the table, the farmer,
dropping his head a little, helped the children, calling their
names one by one, more softly and in a tone meant to restore
cheerfulness if possible. The little wife at the head of the table
had just put sugar into Gabriella’s cup and was in the act of
pouring the coffee. She hastily emptied the sugar back into the
sugar-dish and asked with look of dismay:–

“Will you have sugar in your coffee?”

The situation grew worse at breakfast. In a voice to which
confidence had been mysteriously restored during the night–a
voice that seemed to issue from a honey-comb and to drip sweetness
all the way across the table, that big fellow at the foot again

“Miss Gabriella, will you have cream gravy–THIS MORNING?”

“No, thank you!”

The oldest boy cocked his eye sideways at his mother, openly
announcing that he had won a secret wager. The mother hastily

“I thought you might like a little for your breakfast.”

The baby, noticing the stillness and trouble everywhere, and
feeling itself deeply wounded because perfectly innocent, burst
into frantic crying.

Gabriella could have outcried the baby! She resolved that if they
had it for dinner, she would take it though it were the dessert. A
moment later she did better. Lifting her plate in both hands, she
held it out, knife, fork, and all.

“I believe I’ll change my mind. It looks SO tempting.”

“I think you’ll find it nice,” remarked the housewife, conciliated,
but resentful. But every child now determined to watch and see what
else she didn’t take. They watched in vain: she took everything. So
that in a few days they recovered their faith in her and resumed
their crawling. Gabriella had never herself realized how many
different routes and stations she had in her own body until it had
been thus travelled over: feet and ankles; knees; upper joints;
trunk line; eastern and western divisions; head terminal.

There was never any more trouble for her in that household. They
made only two demands: that she eat whatever was put on the table
and love them. Whatever was put on the table was good; and they
were all lovable. They were one live, disorderly menagerie of
nothing but love. But love is not the only essential of life; and
its phenomena can be trying.

Here, then, in this remote neighborhood of plain farmers, in a
little district school situated on a mud road, Gabriella began
alone and without training her new life,–attempt of the Southern
girl to make herself self-supporting in some one of the
professions,–sign of a vast national movement among the women of
her people. In her surroundings and ensuing struggles she had much
use for that saving sense of humor which had been poured into her
veins out of the deep clear wells of her ancestors; need also of
that radiant, bountiful light which still fell upon her from the
skies of the past; but more than these as staff to her young hands,
cup to her lips, lamp to her feet, oil to her daily bruises, rest
to her weary pillow, was reliance on Higher Help. For the years–
and they seemed to her many and wide–had already driven
Gabriella, as they have driven countless others of her sex, out of
the cold, windy world into the church: she had become a Protestant
devotee. Had she been a Romanist, she would long ere this have been
a nun. She was now fitted for any of those merciful and heroic
services which keep fresh on earth the records of devoted women.
The inner supporting stem of her nature had never been snapped; but
it had been bruised enough to give off life-fragrance. Adversity
had ennobled her. In truth, she had so weathered the years of a
Revolution which had left her as destitute as it had left her free,
that she was like Perdita’s rosemary: a flower which keeps seeming
and savor all the winter long. The North Wind had bolted about her
in vain his whitest snows; and now the woods were turning green.

It was merely in keeping with Gabriella’s nature, therefore, that
as she grew to know the people among whom she had come to stay,
their homes, their family histories, one household and one story
should have engaged her deep interest: David’s parents and David’s
career. As she drove about the country, visiting with the farmer’s
wife, there had been pointed out a melancholy remnant of a farm,
desperately resisting absorption by some one of three growing
estates touching it on three sides. She had been taken to call on
the father and mother; had seen the poverty within doors, the half-
ruined condition of the outhouses; had heard of their son, now away
at the university; of how they had saved and he had struggled. A
proud father it was who now told of his son’s magnificent progress
already at college.

“Ah,” she exclaimed, thinking it over in her room that night, “this
is something worth hearing! Here is the hero in life! Among these
easy-going people this solitary struggler. I, too, am one now; I
can understand him.”

During the first year of her teaching, there had developed in her a
noble desire to see David; but one long to be disappointed. He did
not return home during his vacation; she went away during hers. The
autumn following he was back in college; she at her school. Then
the Christmas holidays and his astounding, terrible home-coming,
put out of college and church. As soon as she heard of that awful
downfall, Gabriella felt a desire to go straight to him. She did
not reason or hesitate: she went.

And now for two months they had been seeing each other every few

Thus by the working out of vast forces, the lives of Gabriella and
David had been jostled violently together. They were the children
of two revolutions, separate yet having a common end: she produced
by the social revolution of the New World, which overthrew
mediaeval slavery; he by the intellectual revolution of the Old
World, which began to put forth scientific law, but in doing this
brought on one of the greatest ages of religious doubt. So that
both were early vestiges of the same immeasurable race evolution,
proceeding along converging lines. She, living on the artificial
summits of a decaying social order, had farthest to fall, in its
collapse, ere she reached the natural earth; he, toiling at the
bottom, had farthest to rise before he could look out upon the
plains of widening modern thought and man’s evolving destiny.
Through her fall and his rise, they had been brought to a common
level. But on that level all that had befallen her had driven her
as out of a blinding storm into the church, the seat and asylum of
religion; all that had befallen him had driven him out of the
churches as the fortifications of theology. She had been drawn to
that part of worship which lasts and is divine; he had been
repelled by the part that passes and is human.


Although Gabriella had joyously greeted the day, as bringing
exemption from stifling hours in school, her spirits had drooped
ere evening with monotony. There were no books in use among the
members of that lovable household except school-books; they were
too busy with the primary joys of life to notice the secondary
resources of literature. She had no pleasant sewing. To escape the
noise of the pent-up children, she must restrict herself to that
part of the house which comprised her room. A walk out of doors was
impracticable, although she ventured once into the yard to study
more closely the marvels of the ice-work; and to the edge of the
orchard, to ascertain how the apple trees were bearing up under
those avalanches of frozen silver slipped from the clouds.

So there were empty hours for her that day; and always the emptiest
are the heaviest–those unfilled baskets of time which strangely
become lightest only after we have heaped them with the best we
have to give. Gabriella filled the hour-baskets this day with
thoughts of David, whose field work she knew would be interrupted
by the storm, and whose movements about the house she vainly tried
to follow in imagination.

Two months of close association with him in that dull country
neighborhood had wrought great changes in the simple feeling with
which she had sought him at first. He had then been to her only a
Prodigal who had squandered his substance, tried to feed his soul
on the swinish husks of Doubt, and returning to his father’s house
unrepentant, had been admitted yet remained rejected: a Prodigal
not of the flesh and the world but of the spirit and the Lord. But
what has ever interested the heart of woman as a prodigal of some

At other times he was figured by her sympathies as a young
Samaritan gone travelling into a Divine country but fallen among
spiritual thieves, who had stripped him of his seamless robe of
Faith and left him bruised by Life’s wayside: a maltreated Christ-
neighbor whom it was her duty to succor if she could. But a woman’s
nursing of a man’s wound–how often it becomes the nursing of the
wounded! Moreover, Gabriella had now long been aware of what she
had become to her prodigal, her Samaritan; she saw the truth and
watched it growing from day to day; for he was incapable of
disguises. But often what effect has such watching upon the
watcher, a watcher who is alone in the world? So that while she
fathomed with many feminine soundings all that she was to David,
Gabriella did not dream what David had become to her.

Shortly after nightfall, when she heard his heavy tread on the
porch below, the tedium of the day instantly vanished. Happiness
rose in her like a clear fountain set suddenly playing–rose to her
eyes–bathed her in refreshing vital emotions.

“I am so glad you came,” she said as she entered the parlor, gave
him her hand, and stood looking up into his softened rugged face,
at his majestical head, which overawed her a little always. Large
as was the mould in which nature had cast his body, this seemed to
her dwarfed by the inner largeness of the man, whose development
she could note as now going forward almost visibly from day to day:
he had risen so far already and was still so young.

He did not reply to her greeting except with a look. In matters
which involved his feeling for her, he was habitually hampered and
ill at ease; only on general subjects did she ever see him master
of his resources. Gabriella had fallen into the habit of looking
into his eyes for the best answers: there he always spoke not only
with ideas but emotions: a double speech much cared for by woman.

They seated themselves on opposite sides of the wide deep fire-
place: a grate for soft coal had not yet destroyed that.

“Your schoolhouse is safe,” he announced briefly.

“Oh, I’ve been wanting to know all day but had no one to send! How
do YOU know?” she inquired quickly.

“It’s safe. The yard will have to be cleared of brush: that’s all.”

She looked at him gratefully. “You are always so kind!”

“Well,” observed David, with a great forward stride, “aren’t you?”

Gabriella, being a woman, did not particularly prize this remark:
it suggested his being kind because she had been kind; and a woman
likes nothing as reward, everything as tribute.

“And now if the apple trees are only not killed!” she exclaimed
joyously, changing the subject.

“Why the apple trees?”

“If you had been here last spring, you would have understood. When
they bloom, they are mine, I take possession.” After a moment she
added: “They bring back the recollection of such happy times–
springs long ago. Some time I’ll tell you.”

“When you were a little girl?”


“I wish I had known you when you were a little girl,” said David,
in an undertone, looking into the fire.

Gabriella reflected how impossible this would have been: the
thought caused her sharp pain.

Some time later, David, who had appeared more and more involved in
some inward struggle, suddenly asked a relieving question:–

“Do you know the first time I ever saw you?”

She did not answer at once.

“In the smoke-house,” she said with a ripple of laughter.
Gabriella, when she was merry, made one, think of some lovely green
April hill, snow-capped.

David shook his head slowly. His eyes grew soft and mysterious.

“It was the first time _I_ ever saw YOU,” she protested.

He continued to shake his head, and she looked puzzled.

“You saw me once before that, and smiled at me.”

Gabriella seemed incredulous and not well pleased.

After a little while David began in the manner of one who sets out
to tell a story he is secretly fond of.

“Do you remember standing on the steps of a church the Friday
evening before Christmas–a little after dark?”

Gabriella’s eyes began to express remembrance. “A wagon-load of
cedar had just been thrown out on the sidewalk, the sexton was
carrying it into the church, some children were helping, you were
making a wreath: do you remember?”

She knew every word of this.

“A young man–a Bible student–passed, or tried to pass. You
smiled at his difficulty. Not unkindly,” he added, smiling not
unkindly himself.

“And that was you? This explains why I have always believed I had
seen you before. But it was only for a moment, your face was in the
dark; how should I remember?”

After she said this, she looked grave: his face that night had been
far from a happy one.

“That day,” continued David, quickly grave also, “that day I saw my
professors and pastor for the last time; it ended me as a Bible
student. I had left the University and the scene of my trial only a
little while before.”

He rose as he concluded and took a turn across the room. Then he
faced her, smiling a little sadly.

“Once I might have thought all that Providential. I mean, seeing
the faces of my professors–my judges–last, as the end of my old
life; then seeing your face next–the beginning of the new.”

He had long used frankness like this, making no secret of himself,
of her influence over him. It was embarrassing; it declared so
much, assumed so much, that had never been declared or assumed in
any other way. But her stripped and beaten young Samaritan was no
labyrinthine courtier, bescented and bedraped and bedyed with
worldliness and conventions: he came ever in her presence naked of
soul. It was this that empowered her to take the measure of his
feeling for her: it had its effect.

David returned to his chair and looked across with a mixture of
hesitancy and determination.

“I have never spoken to you about my expulsion–my unbelief.”

After a painful pause she answered.

“You must be aware that I have noticed your silence. Perhaps you do
not realize how much I have regretted it.”

“You know why I have not?”

She did not answer.

“I have been afraid. It’s the only thing in the world I’ve ever
been afraid of.”

“Why should you have been?”

“I dreaded to know how you might feel. It has caused a difficulty
with every one so far. It separated me from my friends among the
Bible students. It separated me from my professors, my pastor. It
has alienated my father and mother. I did not know how you would
regard it.”

“Have I not known it all the time? Has it made any difference?”

“Ah! but that might be only your toleration! Meantime it has become
a question with me how far your toleration will go–what is back of
your toleration! We tolerate so much in people who are merely
acquaintances–people that we do not care particularly for and that
we are never to have anything to do with in life. But if the tie
begins to be closer, then the things we tolerated at a distance–
what becomes of them then? ”

He was looking at her steadily, and she dropped her eyes. This was
another one of the Prodigal’s assumptions–but never before put so

“So I have feared that when I myself told you what I believe and
what I do not believe, it might be the end of me. And when you
learned my feelings toward what YOU believe–that might be more
troublesome still. But the time has come when I must know.”

He turned his face away from her, and rising, walked several times
across the room.

At last also the moment had arrived for which she had been waiting.
Freely as they had spoken to each other of their pasts–she giving
him glimpses of the world in which she had been reared, he taking
her into his world which was equally unfamiliar–on this subject
silence between them had never been broken. She had often sought to
pass the guard he placed around this tragical episode but had
always been turned away. The only original ground of her interest
in him, therefore, still remained a background, obscure and
unexplored. She regretted this for many reasons. Her belief was
that he was merely passing through a phase of religious life not
uncommon with those who were born to go far in mental travels
before they settled in their Holy Land. She believed it would be
over the sooner if he had the chance to live it out in discussion;
and she herself offered the only possibility of this. Gabriella was
in a position to know by experience what it means in hours of
trouble to need the relief of companionship. Ideas, she had
learned, long shut up in the mind tend to germinate and take root.
There had been discords which had ceased sounding in her own ear as
soon as they were poured into another.

“I have always hoped,” she repeated, as he seated himself, “that
you would talk with me about these things.” And then to divert the
conversation into less difficult channels, she added:–

“As to what you may think of my beliefs, I have no fear; they need
not be discussed and they cannot be attacked.”

“You are an Episcopalian,” he suggested hesitatingly. “I do not
wish to be rude, but–your church has its dogmas.”

“There is not a dogma of my church that I have ever thought of for
a moment: or of any other church,” she replied instantly and

In those simple words she had uttered unaware a long historic
truth: that religion, not theology, forms the spiritual life of
women. In the whole history of the world’s opinions, no dogma of
any weight has ever originated with a woman; wherein, as in many
other ways, she shows points of superiority in her intellect. It is
a man who tries to apprehend God through his logic and psychology;
a woman understands Him better through emotions and deeds. It is
the men who are concerned about the cubits, the cedar wood, the
Urim and Thummim of the Tabernacle; woman walks straight into the
Holy of Holies. Men constructed the Cross; women wept for the
Crucified. It was a man–a Jew defending his faith in his own
supernatural revelation–who tried to ram a sponge of vinegar into
the mouth of Christ, dying; it was women who gathered at the
sepulchre of Resurrection. If Christ could have had a few women
among his Apostles, there might have been more of His religion in
the world and fewer creeds barnacled on the World’s Ship of Souls.

“How can you remain in your church without either believing or
disbelieving its dogmas?” asked David, squarely.

“My church is the altar of Christ and the house of God,” replied
Gabriella, simply. “And so is any other church.” That was all the
logic she had and all the faith she needed; beyond that limit she
did not even think.

“And you believe in THEM ALL?” he asked with wondering admiration.

“I believe in them all.”

“Once I did also,” observed David, reverently and with new
reverence for her.

“What I regret is that you should have thrown away your religion on
account of your difficulties with theology. Nothing more awful
could have befallen you than that.”

“It was the churches that made the difficulties,” said David, “I
did not. But there is more than theology in it. You do not know
what I think about religions–revelations–inspirations–man’s
place in nature.”

“What DO you think?” she asked eagerly. “I suppose now I shall hear
something about those great books.”

She put herself at ease in her chair like one who prepares to
listen quietly.

“Shall I tell you how the whole argument runs as I have arranged
it? I shall have to begin far away and come down to the subject by
degrees.” He looked apologetic.

“Tell me everything; I have been waiting a long time.”

David reflected a few moments and then began:–

“The first of my books as I have arranged them, considers what we
call the physical universe as a whole–our heavens–the stars–and
discusses the little that man knows about it. I used to think the
earth was the centre of this universe, the most important world in
it, on account of Man. That is what the ancient Hebrews thought. In
this room float millions of dust-particles too small to be seen by
us. To say that the universe is made for the sake of the earth
would be something like saying that the earth was created for the
sake of one of these particles of its own dust.”

He paused to see how she received this.

“That ought to be a great book,” she said approvingly. “I should
like to study it.”

“The second takes up that small part of the universe which we call
our solar system and sums up the little we have learned regarding
it. I used to think the earth the most important part of the solar
system, on account of Man. So the earliest natural philosophers
believed. That is like believing that the American continent was
created for the sake, say, of my father’s farm.”

He awaited her comment.

“That should be a great book,” she said simply. “Some day let me
see THAT.”

“The third detaches for study one small planet of that system–our
earth–and reviews our latest knowledge of that: as to how it has
been evolved into its present stage of existence through other
stages requiring unknown millions and millions and millions of
years. Once I thought it was created in six days. So it is written.
Do you believe that? ”

There was silence.

“What is the next book?” she asked.

“The fourth,” said David, with a twinkle in his eye at her refusal
to answer his question, “takes up the history of the earth’s
surface–its crust–the layers of this–as one might study the skin
of an apple as large as the globe. In the course of an almost
infinite time, as we measure things, it discovers the appearance of
Life on this crust, and then tries to follow the progress of Life
from the lowest forms upward, always upward, to Man: another time
infinitely vast, according to our standards.”

He looked over for some comment but she made none, and he
continued, his interest deepening, his face kindling:–

“The fifth takes up the subject of Man, as a single one of the
myriads of forms of Life that have grown on the earth’s crust, and
gives the best of what we know of him viewed as a species of
animal. Does this tire you? ”

Gabriella made the only gesture of displeasure he had ever seen.

“Now,” said David, straightening himself up, “I draw near to the
root of the matter. A sixth book takes up what we call the
civilization of this animal species, Man. It subdivides his
civilization into different civilizations. It analyzes these
civilizations, where it is possible, into their arts, governments,
literatures, religions, and other elements. And the seventh,” he
resumed after a grave pause, scrutinizing her face most eagerly,
“the seventh takes up just one part of his civilizations–the
religions of the globe–and gives an account of these. It describes
how they have grown and flourished, how some have passed as
absolutely away as the civilizations that produced them. It teaches
that those religions were as natural a part of those civilizations
as their civil laws, their games, their wars, their philosophy;
that the religious books of these races, which they themselves
often thought inspired revelations, were no more inspired and no
more revelations than their secular books; that Buddha’s faith or
Brahma’s were no more direct from God than Buddhistic or Brahman
temples were from God; that the Koran is no more inspired than
Moorish architecture is inspired; that the ancient religion of the
Jewish race stands on the same footing as the other great religions
of the globe–as to being Supernatural; that the second religion of
the Hebrews, starting out of them, but rejected by them, the
Christian religion, the greatest of all to us, takes its place with
the others as a perfectly natural expression of the same human
desire and effort to find God and to worship Him through all the
best that we know in ourselves and of the universe outside us.”

“Ah,” said Gabriella, suddenly leaning forward in her chair, “that
is the book that has done all the harm.”

“One moment! All these books,” continued David, for he was aroused
now and did not pause to consider her passionate protest, “have
this in common: that they try to discover and to trace Law. The
universe–it is the expression of Law. Our solar system–it has
been formed by Law, The sun–the driving force of Law has made it.
Our earth–Law has shaped that; brought Life out of it; evolved
Life on it from the lowest to the highest; lifted primeval Man to
modern Man; out of barbarism developed civilization; out of
prehistoric religions, historic religions. And this one order–
method–purpose–ever running and unfolding through the universe,
is all that we know of Him whom we call Creator, God, our Father.
So that His reign is the Reign of Law. He, Himself, is the author
of the Law that we should seek Him. We obey, and our seekings are
our religions.”

“If you ask me whether I believe in the God of the Hebrews, I say
‘Yes’; just as I believe in the God of the Babylonians, of the
Egyptians, of the Greeks, of the Romans, of all men. But if you ask
whether I believe what the Hebrews wrote of God, or what any other
age or people thought of God, I say ‘ No.’ I believe what the best
thought of my own age thinks of Him in the light of man’s whole
past and of our greater present knowledge of the Laws of His
universe,” said David, stoutly, speaking for his masters.

“As for the theologies,” he resumed hastily, as if not wishing to
be interrupted, “I know of no book that has undertaken to number
them. They, too, are part of Man’s nature and civilization, of his
never ceasing search. But they are merely what he thinks of God–
never anything more. They often contain the highest thought of
which he is capable in his time and place; but the awful mistake
and cruelty of them is that they have regularly been put forth as
the voice of God Himself, authoritative, inviolable, and
unchanging. An assemblage of men have a perfect right to turn a man
out of their church on theological grounds; but they have no right
to do it in the name of God. With as much propriety a man might be
expelled from a political party in the name of God. In the long
life of any one of the great religions of the globe, how many brief
theologies have grown up under it like annual plants under a tree!
How many has the Christian religion itself sprouted, nourished, and
trampled down as dead weeds! What do we think now of the Christian
theology of the tenth century? of the twelfth? of the fifteenth? In
the nineteenth century alone, how many systems of theology have
there been? In the Protestantism of the United States, how many are
there to-day? Think of the names they bear–older and newer!
According to founders, and places, and sources, and contents, and
methods: Arminian–Augustinian–Calvinistic–Lutheran–Gallican–
Genevan–Mercersburg–New England–Oxford–national–revealed–
polemic–rational–systematic. That sounds a little like
Polonius,” said David, stopping suddenly, “but there is no humor in
it! One great lesson in the history of them all is not to be
neglected: that through them also runs the great Law of Evolution,
of the widening thoughts of men; so that now, in civilized
countries at least, the churches persecute to the death no longer.
You know what the Egyptian Priesthood would have done with me at my
trial. What the Mediaeval hierarchy would have done. What the
Protestant or the Catholic theology of two centuries ago might have
done. Now mankind is developing better ideas of these little
arrangements of human psychology on the subject of God, though the
churches still try to enforce them in His name. But the time is
coming when the churches will be deserted by all thinking men,
unless they cease trying to uphold, as the teachings of God, mere
creeds of their ecclesiastical founders. Very few men reject all
belief in God; and it is no man’s right to inquire in what any
man’s belief consists; men do reject and have a right to reject
what some man writes out as the eternal truth of the matter.”

“And now,” he said, turning to her sorrowfully, “that is the best
or the worst of what I believe–according as one may like it or not
like it. I see all things as a growth, a sublime unfolding by the
Laws of God. The race ever rises toward Him. The old things which
were its best once die off from it as no longer good. Its charity
grows, its justice grows. All the nobler, finer elements of its
spirit come forth more and more–a continuous advance along the
paths of Law. And the better the world, the larger its knowledge,
the easier its faith in Him who made it and who leads it on. The
development of Man is itself the great Revelation of Him! But I
have studied these things ignorantly, only a little while. I am at
the beginning of my life, and hope to grow. Still I stand where I
have placed myself. And now, are you like the others: do you give
me up?”

He faced her with the manner in which he had sat before his
professors, conceiving himself as on trial a second time. He had in
him the stuff of martyrs and was prepared to stand by his faith at
the cost of all things.

The silence in the room lasted. Her feeling for him was so much
deeper than all this–so centred, not in what his faith was to her
but in what HE was to her, that she did not trust herself to speak.
He was not on trial in these matters in the least: without his
knowing it, he had been on trial in many other ways for a long

He misunderstood her silence, read wrongly her expression which was
obeying with some severity the need she felt to conceal what she
had no right to show.

“Ah, well! Ah, well!” he cried piteously, rising slowly.

When she saw his face a moment later across the room as he turned,
it was the face she had first seen in the dark street. It had
stopped her singing then; it drew an immediate response from her
now. She crossed over to him and took one of his hands in both of
hers. Her cheeks were flushed, her voice trembled.

“I am not your judge,” she said, “and in all this there is only one
thing that is too sad, too awful, for me to accept. I am sorry you
should have been misled into believing that the Christian religion
is nothing more than one of the religions of the world, and Christ
merely one of its religious teachers. I wish with all my strength
you believed as you once believed, that the Bible is a direct
Revelation from God, making known to us, beyond all doubt, the
Resurrection of the dead, the Immortality of the Soul, in a better
world than this, and the presence with us of a Father who knows our
wants, pities our weakness, and answers our prayers. But I believe
you will one day regain your faith: you will come back to the

He shook his head.

“Don’t be deceived,” he said.

“Men, great men, have said that before and they have come back. I
am a woman, and these questions never trouble us; but is it not a
common occurrence that men who think deeply on such mysteries pass
through their period of doubt?”

“But suppose I never pass through mine! You have not answered my
question,” he said determinedly. “Does this make no difference in
your feeling for me? Would it make none?”

“Will you bring me that book on the religions of the world?”

“Ah,” he said, “you have not answered.”

“I have told you that I am not your judge.”

“Ah, but that tells nothing: a woman is never a judge. She is
either with one or against him.”

“Which do I look like?”–she laughed evasively–“Mercy or
Vengeance? And have you forgotten that it is late–too late to ask

He stood, comprehending her doubtfully, with immeasurable joy, and
then went out to get his overcoat.

“Bring your things in here,” she said, “it is cold in the hall. And
wrap up warmly! That is more important than all the Genevan and the

He bade her good night, subdued with happiness that seemed to blot
out the troublous past, to be the beginning of new life. New
happiness brought new awkwardness:–

“This was not my regular night,” he said threateningly. “I came to-
night instead of to-morrow night.”

Gabriella could answer a remark like that quickly enough.

“Certainly: it is hard to wait even for a slight pleasure, and it
is best to be through with suffering.”

He looked as if cold water and hot water had been thrown on him at
the same time: he received shocks of different kinds and was
doubtful as to the result. He shook his head questioningly.

“I may do very well with science, but I am not so sure about

“Aren’t women science?”

“They are a branch of theology,” he said; “they are what a man
thinks about when he begins to probe his Destiny!”


David slept peacefully that night, like a man who has reached the
end of long suspense. When he threw his shutters open late, he
found that the storm had finished its work and gone and that the
weather had settled stinging cold. The heavens were hyacinth, the
ground white with snow; and the sun, day-lamp of that vast ceiling
of blue, made the earth radiant as for the bridal morn of Winter.
So HIS thoughts ran.

“Gabriella! Gabriella!” he cried, as he beheld the beauty, the
purity, the breadth, the clearness. “It is you–except the
coldness, the cruelty.”

All day then those three: the hyacinthine sky, the flashing lamp,
the white earth, with not one crystal thawing.

It being Saturday, there was double work for him. He knocked up the
wood for that day and for Sunday also, packed and stored it; cut
double the quantity of oats; threw over twice the usual amount of
fodder. The shocks were buried. He had hard kicking to do before he
reached the rich brown fragrant stalks. Afterwards he made paths
through the snow about the house for his mother; to the dairy, to
the hen-house. In the wooden monotony of her life an interruption
in these customary visits would have been to her a great loss. The
snow being over the cook’s shoe-tops, he took a basket and dug the
vegetables out of the holes in the garden.

In the afternoon he had gone to the pond in the woods to cut a
drinking place for the cattle. As he was returning with his axe on
his shoulder, the water on it having instantly frozen, he saw
riding away across the stable lot, the one of their neighbors who
was causing him so much trouble about the buying of the farm. He
stopped hot with anger and watched him.

In those years a westward movement was taking place among the
Kentuckians–a sad exodus. Many families rendered insolvent or
bankrupt by the war and the loss of their slaves, while others
interspersed among them had grown richer by Government contracts,
were now being bought out, forced out, by debt or mortgage, and
were seeking new homes where lay cheaper lands and escape from the
suffering of living on, ruined, amid old prosperous acquaintances.
It was a profound historic disturbance of population, destined
later on to affect profoundly many younger commonwealths. This was
the situation now bearing heavily on David’s father, on three sides
of whose fragmentary estate lay rich neighbors, one of whom
especially desired it.

The young man threw his axe over his shoulder again and took a line
straight toward the house.

“He shall not take advantage of my father’s weakness again,” he
said, “nor shall he use to further his purposes what I have done to
reduce him to this want.”

He felt sure that this pressure upon his father lay in part back of
the feeling of his parents toward him. His expulsion from college
and their belief that he was a failure; the fact that for three
years repairs had been neglected and improvements allowed to wait,
in order that all possible revenues might be collected for him;
even these caused them less acute distress than the fear that as a
consequence they should now be forced so late in life to make that
mournful pilgrimage into strange regions. David was saddened to
think that ever at his father’s side sat his mother, irritating him
by dropping all day into his ear the half idle, half intentional
words which are the water that wears out the rock.

The young man walked in a straight line toward the house,
determined to ascertain the reason of this last visit, and to have
out the long-awaited talk with his father. He reached the yard
gate, then paused and wheeled abruptly toward the barn.

“Not to-day,” he said, thinking of Gabriella and of his coming
visit to her now but a few hours off. “To-morrow! Day after to-
morrow! Any time after this! But no quarrels to-day!” and his face

Before the barn door, where the snow had been tramped down by the
stock and seeds of grain lay scattered, he flushed a flock of
little birds, nearly all strangers to each other. Some from the
trees about the yard; some from the thickets, fences, and fields
farther away. As he threw open the barn doors, a few more, shyer
still, darted swiftly into hiding. He heard the quick heavy flap of
wings on the joists of the oats loft overhead, and a hawk swooped
out the back door and sailed low away.

The barn had become a battle-field of hunger and life. This was the
second day of famine–all seeds being buried first under ice and
now under snow; swift hunger sending the littler ones to this
granary, the larger following to prey on them. To-night there would
be owls and in the darkness tragedies. In the morning, perhaps, he
would find a feather which had floated from a breast. A hundred
years ago, he reflected, the wolves would have gathered here also
and the cougar and the wildcat for bigger game.

It was sunset as he left the stable, his work done. Beside the yard
gate there stood a locust tree, and on a bough of this, midway up,
for he never goes to the tree-tops at this season, David saw a
cardinal. He was sitting with his breast toward the clear crimson
sky; every twig around him silver filigree; the whole tree
glittering with a million gems of rose and white, gold and green;
and wherever a fork, there a hanging of snow. The bird’s crest was
shot up. He had come forth to look abroad upon this strange wreck
of nature and peril to his kind. David had scarcely stopped before
him when with a quick shy movement he dived down into one of his
ruined winter fortresses-a cedar dismembered and flattened out,
never to rise again.

The supper that evening was a very quiet one. David felt that his
father’s eyes were often on him reproachfully; and that his
mother’s were approvingly on his father’s. Time and again during
the meal the impulse well-nigh overcame him to speak to his father
then and there; but he knew it would be a cruel, angry scene; and
each time the face of Gabriella restrained him. It was for peace;
and his heart shut out all discord from around that new tenderer
figure of her which had come forth within him this day.

Soon even the trouble at home was forgotten; he was on his way
through the deep snow toward her.


Gabriella had brought with her into this neighborhood of good-
natured, non-reading people the recollections of literature. These
became her library of the mind; and deep joy she drew from its
invisible volumes. She had transported a fine collection of the
heroes and heroines of good fiction (Gabriella, according to the
usage of her class and time, had never read any but standard
works). These, when the earlier years of adversity came on, had
been her second refuge from the world:, religion was the first. Now
they were the means by which she returned to the world in
imagination. The failure to gather together so durable a company of
friends leaves every mind the more destitute–especially a woman’s,
which has greater need to live upon ideals, and cannot always find
these in actual life. Then there were short poems and parts of long
poems, which were as texts out of a high and beautiful Gospel of
Nature. One of these was on the snowstorm; and this same morning
her memory long was busy, fitting the poem within her mind to the
scenery around the farmhouse, as she passed joyously from window to
window, looking out far and near.

There it all was as the great New England poet had described it:
that masonry out of an unseen quarry, that frolic architecture of
the snow, nightwork of the North Wind, fierce artificer. In a few
hours he had mimicked with wild and savage fancy the structures
which human art can scarce rear, stone by stone, in an age: white
bastions curved with projected roof round every windward stake or
tree or door; the gateway overtopped with tapering turrets; coop
and kennel hung mockingly with Parian wreaths; a swanlike form
investing the hidden thorn.

From one upper window under the blue sky in the distance she could
see what the poet had never beheld: a field of hemp shocks looking
like a winter camp, dazzlingly white. The scene brought to her mind
some verses written by a minor Kentucky writer on his own soil and


Ah, gentle are the days when the Year is young
And rolling fields with rippling hemp are green
And from old orchards pipes the thrush at morn.
No land, no land like this is yet unsung
Where man and maid at twilight meet unseen
And Love is born.

Oh, mighty summer days and god of flaming tress
When in the fields full-headed bends the stalk,
And blossoms what was sown!
No land, no land like this for tenderness
When man and maid as one together walk
And Love is grown.

Oh, dim, dim autumn days of sobbing rain
When on the fields the ripened hemp is spread
And woods are brown.
No land, no land like this for mortal pain
When Love stands weeping by the sweet, sweet bed
For Love cut down.

Ah, dark, unfathomably dark, white winter days
When falls the sun from out the crystal deep
On muffled farms.
No land, no land like this for God’s sad ways
When near the tented fields Love’s Soldier lies asleep
With empty arms.

The verses were too sorrowful for this day, with its new, half-
awakened happiness. Had Gabriella been some strong-minded,
uncompromising New England woman, she might have ended her
association with David the night before–taking her place
triumphantly beside an Accusing Judge. Or she might all the more
fiercely have set on him an acrid conscience, and begun battling
with him through the evidences of Christianity, that she might save
his soul. But this was a Southern girl of strong, warm, deep
nature, who felt David’s life in its simple entirety, and had no
thought of rejecting the whole on account of some peculiarity in
one of its parts; the white flock was more to her than one dark
member. Inexpressibly dear and sacred as was her own church, her
own faith, she had never been taught to estimate a man primarily
with reference to his. What was his family, how he stood in his
profession, his honorable character, his manners, his manhood–
these were what Gabriella had always been taught to look for first
in a man.

In many other ways than in his faith and doubt David was a new type
of man to her. He was the most religious, the only religious, one
she had ever known–a new spiritual growth arising out of his
people as a young oak out of the soil. Had she been familiar with
the Greek idea, she might have called him a Kentucky autochthon. It
was the first time also that she had ever encountered in a
Kentuckian the type of student mind–that fitness and taste for
scholarship which sometimes moves so unobtrusively and rises so
high among that people, but is usually unobserved unless discovered
pre-eminent and commanding far from the confines of the state.

Touching his scepticism she looked upon him still as she had
thought of him at first,–as an example of a sincere soul led
astray for a time only. Strange as were his views (and far stranger
they seemed in those years than now), she felt no doubt that when
the clouds marshalled across his clear vision from the minds of
others had been withdrawn, he would once more behold the Sun of
Righteousness as she did. Gabriella as by intuition reasoned that a
good life most often leads to a belief in the Divine Goodness; that
as we understand in others only what we are in ourselves, so it is
the highest elements of humanity that must be relied upon to
believe in the Most High: and of David’s lofty nature she possessed
the whole history of his life as evidence.

Her last act, then, the night before had been, in her nightgown, on
her knees, to offer up a prayer that he might be saved from the
influences of false teachers and guided back to the only Great One.
But when a girl, with all the feelings which belong to her at that
hour, seeks this pure audience and sends upward the name of a man
on her spotless prayers, he is already a sacred happiness to her as
well as a care.

On this day she was radiant with tender happiness. The snow of
itself was exhilarating. It spread around her an enchanted land. It
buried out of sight in the yard and stable lots all mire, all ugly
things. This ennoblement of eternal objects reacted with comic
effect on the interior of the house itself; outside it was a marble
palace, surrounded by statuary; within–alas! It provoked her
humor, that innocent fun-making which many a time had rendered her
environment the more tolerable.

When she went down into the parlor early that evening to await
David’s coming, this gayety, this laughter of the generations of
men and women who made up her past, possessed her still. She made a
fresh investigation of the parlor, took a new estimate of its
peculiar furnishings. The hearthstones–lead color. The mohair
furniture–cold at all temperatures of the room and slippery in
every position of the body. The little marble-top table on which
rested a glass case holding a stuffed blue jay clutching a
varnished limb: tail and eyes stretched beyond the reach of
muscles. Near the door an enormous shell which, on summer days, the
cook blew as a dinner horn for the hands in the field. A collection
of ambrotypes which, no matter how held, always caused the sitter
to look as though the sun was shining in his eyes. The violence of
the Brussels carpet. But the cheap family portraits in thin wooden
frames–these were Gabriella’s delight in a mood like this.

The first time she saw these portraits, she turned and walked
rapidly out of the parlor. She had enough troubles of her own
without bearing the troubles of all these faces. Later on she could
confront them with equanimity–that company of the pallid, the
desperately sick, the unaccountably uncomfortable. All looked, not
as though there had been a death in the family, but a death in the
collection: only the same grief could have so united them as
mourners. And whatever else they lacked, each showed two hands, the
full number, placed where they were sure to be counted.

She was in the midst of this psychological reversion to ancestral
gayety when David arrived. Each looked quickly at the other with
unconscious fear. Within a night and a day each had drawn nearer to
the other; and each secretly inquired whether the other now
discovered this nearness. Gabriella saw at least that he, too, was
excited with happiness.

He appeared to her for the first time handsome. He WAS better
looking. When one approaches the confines of love, one nears the
borders of beauty. Nature sets going a certain work of decoration,
of transformation. Had David about this time been a grouse, he
would probably have displayed a prodigious ruff. Had he been a
bulbul and continued to feel as he did, he would have poured into
the ear of night such roundelays as had never been conceived of by
that disciplined singer. Had he been a master violinist, he would
have been unable to play a note from a wild desire to flourish the
bow. He had long stood rooted passively in the soil of being like a
century plant when it is merely keeping itself in existence. But
latterly, feeling in advance the approach of the Great Blossoming
Hour, he had begun to shoot up rapidly into a lofty life-stalk;
there were inches of the rankest growth on him within the last
twenty-four hours. To-night he was not even serious in his
conversation; and therefore he was the more awkward. His emotions
were unmanageable; much more his talk. But she who witnesses this
awkwardness and understands–does she ever fail to pardon?

“Last night,” he said with a droll twinkle, after the evening was
about half spent, “there was one subject I did not speak to you
about–Man’s place in Nature. Have you ever thought about that?”

“I’ve been too busy thinking about my place in the school!” said
Gabriella, laughing–Gabriella who at all times was simplicity and

“You see Nature does nothing for Man except what she enables him to
do for himself. In this way she has made a man of him; she has
given him his resources and then thrown him upon them. Beyond that
she cares nothing, does nothing, provides, arranges nothing. I used
to think, for instance, that the greenness of the earth was
intended for his eyes–all the loveliness of spring. On the
contrary, she merely gave him an eye which has adapted itself to
get pleasure out of the greenness. The beauty of spring would have
been the same, year after year, century after century, had he never
existed. And the blue of the sky–I used to think it was hung about
the earth for his sake; and the colors of the clouds, the great
sunsets. But the blueness of the sky is nothing but the dust of the
planet floating deep around it, too light to sink through the
atmosphere, but reflecting the rays of the sun. These rays fall on
the clouds and color them. It would all have been so, had Man never
been born. The earth’s springs of drinking water, refreshing
showers, the rainbow on the cloud,–they would have been the same,
had no human being ever stood on this planet to claim them for ages
as the signs of providence and of covenant.”

Gabriella had her own faith as to the rainbow.

“So, none of the other animals was made for Man,” resumed David,
who seemed to have some ulterior purpose in all this. “I used to
think the structure and nature of the ass were given him that he
might be adapted to bear Man’s burdens; they were given him that he
might bear his own burdens. Horses were not made for cavalry. And a
camel–I never doubted that he was a wonderful contrivance to
enable man to cross the desert; he is a wonderful contrivance in
order that the contrivance itself may cross the desert.”

“I hope I may never have to use one,” said Gabriella, “when I
commence to ride again. I prefer horses and carriages–though I
suppose you would say that only the carriage was designed for me
and that I had no right to be drawn in that way.”

“Some day a horse may be designed for you, just as the carriage is.
We do not use horses on railroads now; we did use them at first in
Kentucky. Sometime you may not use horses in your carriage. You may
have a horse that was designed for you.”

“I think,” said Gabriella, “I should prefer a horse that was
designed for itself.”

“And so,” resumed David, moving straight on toward his concealed
climax, “if I were a poet, I’d never write poems about flowers and
clouds and lakes and mountains and moonbeams and all that; those
things are not for a man. If I were a novelist, I’d never write
stories about a grizzly bear, or a dog, or a red bird. If I were a
sculptor, I’d not carve a lynx or a lion. If I were a painter, I’d
never paint sheep. In all this universe there is only one thing
that Nature ever created for a man. I’d write poems about that one
thing! I’d write novels about it! I’d paint it! I’d carve it! I’d
compose music to it!”

“Why, what is that?” said Gabriella, led sadly astray.

“A woman!” said David solemnly, turning red.

Gabriella fled into the uttermost caves of silence.

“And there was only one thing ever made for woman.”

“I understand perfectly.”

David felt rebuffed. He hardly knew why. But after a moment or two
of silence he went on, still advancing with rough paces toward his

“Sometimes,” he said mournfully, “it’s harder for a man to get the
only thing in the world that was ever made for him than anything
else! This difficulty, however, appertains exclusively to the human

Gabriella touched her handkerchief quickly to her lips and held it

“But then, many curious things are true of our species,” he
continued, with his eyes on the fire and in the manner of a
soliloquy, “that never occur elsewhere. A man, for instance, is the
only animal that will settle comfortably down for the rest of its
days to live on the exertions of the female.”

“It shows how a woman likes to be depended on,” said Gabriella,
with her deep womanliness.

“Tom-cats of the fireside,” said David, “who are proud of what fat
mice their wives feed them on. It may show what you say in the
nature of the woman. But what does it show in the nature of the

“That depends.”

“I don’t think it depends,” replied David. “I think it is either
one of the results of Christianity or a survival of barbarism. As
one of the results of Christianity, it demonstrates what women will
endure when they are imposed upon. As a relic of barbarism–when it
happens in our country–why not regard it as derived from the North
American Indians? The chiefs lounged around the house and smoked
the best tobacco and sent the squaws out to work for them.
Occasionally they broke silence by briefly declaring that they
thought themselves immortal.”

Gabriella tried to draw the conversation into other channels, but
David was not to be diverted.

“It has been a great fact in the history of your sex,” he said,
looking across at her, with a shake of his head, as though she did
not appreciate the subject, “that idea that everything in the
universe was made for Man.”

“Why?” inquired Gabriella, resigning herself to the perilous and
the irresistible.

“Well, in old times it led men to think that since everything else
belonged to them, so did woman: therefore when they wanted her they
did not ask for her; they took her.”

“It is much better arranged at present, whatever the reason.”

“Now a man cannot always get one, even when he asks for her,” and
David turned red again and knotted his hands.

“I am so glad the schoolhouse was not damaged by the storm,”
observed Gabriella, reflecting.

David fell into a revery but presently awoke.

“There are more men than women in the world. On an average, that is
only a fraction of a woman to every man. Still the men cannot take
care of them. But it ought to be a real pleasure to every man to
take care of an entire woman.”

“Did you ever notice the hands in that portrait?”

David glanced at the portrait without noticing it, and went his

“Since a man knows nothing else was created for him, he feels his
loneliness without her so much more deeply. They ought to be very
good and true to each other–a man and a woman–since they two are
alone in the universe.”

He gulped down his words and stood up, trembling.

“I must be going,” he said, without even looking at Gabriella, and
went out into the hall for his coat.

“Bring it in here.” she called. “It is cold out there.” She watched
how careless he was about making himself snug for his benumbing
walk. He had a woollen comforter which he left loosely tied about
his neck.

“Tie it closer,” she commanded. “You had a cold last night, and it
is worse tonight. Tuck it in close about your neck.”

David made the attempt. He was not thinking.

“This way!” And Gabriella showed him by using her fingers around
her own neck and collar.

He tried again and failed, standing before her with a mingling of
embarrassment and stubborn determination.

“That will never do!” she cried with genuine concern. She took hold
of the comforter by the ends and drew the knot up close to his
throat, he lifting his head to receive it as it came. Then David
with his eyes on the ceiling felt his coat collar turned up and her
soft warm fingers tucking the comforter in around his neck. When he
looked down, she was standing over by the fireplace.

“Good night,” she said positively, with a quick gesture of
dismissal as she saw the look in his eyes.

Each of the million million men who made up the past of David, that
moment reached a hand out of the distance and pushed him forward.
But of them all there was none so helpless with modesty,–so in
need of hiding from every eye,–even his own,–the sacred annals
of that moment.

He was standing by the table on which burned the candles. He bent
down quickly and blew them out and went over to her by the dim


All high happiness has in it some element of love; all love
contains a desire for peace. One immediate effect of new happiness,
new love, is to make us turn toward the past with a wish to
straighten out its difficulties, heal its breaches, forgive its
wrongs. We think most hopefully of distressing things which may
still be remedied, most regretfully of others that have passed
beyond our reach and will.

It was between ten and eleven o’clock of the next day–Sunday.
David’s cold had become worse. He had turned over necessary work to
the negro man and stayed quietly in his room since the silent
breakfast Two or three books chosen carelessly out of the trunk lay
on his table before the fire: interest had gone out of them this
day. With his face red and swollen, he was sitting beside this
table with one hand loosely covering the forgotten books, his eyes
turned to the window, but looking upon distant inward scenes.

Sunday morning between ten and eleven o’clock! the church-going
hour of his Bible-student life. In imagination he could hear across
these wide leagues of winter land the faint, faint peals of the
church bells which were now ringing. He was back in the town again–
up at the college–in his room at the dormitory; and it was in the
days before the times of his trouble. The students were getting
ready for church, with freshly shaved faces, boots well blacked,
best suits on, not always good ones. He could hear their talk in
the rooms around his, hear fragments of hymns, the opening and
shutting of doors along the hallways, and the running of feet down
the stairs. By ones and twos and larger groups they passed down and
out with their hymnals, Testaments, sometimes blank books for notes
on the sermon. Several thrust bright, cordial faces in at the door,
as they passed, to see whether he and his roommate had started.

The scene changed. He was in the church, which was crowded from
pulpit to walls. He was sitting under the chandelier in the choir,
the number of the first hymn had just been whispered along, and he
began to sing, with hundreds of others, the music which then
released the pinions of his love and faith as the air releases the
wings of a bird. The hymn ceased; he could see the pastor rise from
behind the pulpit, advance, and with a gesture gather that sea of
heads to prayer. He could follow the sermon, most of all the
exhortation; around him was such stillness in the church that his
own heart-beats were audible. Then the Supper and then home to the
dormitory again–with a pain of happiness filling him, the rest and
the unrest of consecration.

Many other scenes he lived through in memory this morning–once
lived in reality amid that brotherhood of souls. His tenderest
thoughts perhaps dwelt on the young men’s prayer-meetings of Sunday
afternoons at the college. There they drew nearest to the Eternal
Strength which was behind their weakness, and closest to each other
as student after student lifted a faltering, stumbling petition for
a common blessing on their work. The Immortal seemed to be in that
bare room, filling their hearts with holy flame, drawing around
them the isolation of a devoted band. They were one in One. Then
had followed the change in him which produced the change in them:
no fellowship, no friendship, with an unbeliever; and he was left
without a comrade.

His heart was yearning and sick this day to be reconciled to them
all. How did they think of him, speak of him, now? Who slept in his
bed? Who sat a little while, after the studies of the night were
over, talking to his room-mate? Who knelt down across the room at
his prayers when the lights were put out? And his professors–what
bulwarks of knowledge and rectitude and kindness they were!–all
with him at first, all against him at last, as in duty bound.

To one man alone among those hundreds could David look back as
having begun to take interest in him toward the close of his
college days. During that vacation which he had spent in reading
and study, he had often refreshed himself by taking his book out to
the woodland park near the city, which in those days was the
grounds of one of the colleges of the University. There he found
the green wild country again, a forest like his pioneer ancestor’s.
Regularly here he observed at out-of-door work the professor of
Physical Science, who also was pressing his investigations forward
during the leisure of those summer months. An authority from the
north, from a New England university, who had resigned his chair to
come to Kentucky, attracted by the fair prospects of the new
institution. A great gray-bearded, eagle-faced, square-shouldered,
big-footed man: reserved, absorbed, asking to be let alone, one of
the silent masters. But David, desperate with intellectual
loneliness himself, and knowing this man to be a student of the new
science, one day had introduced himself and made inquiry about
entering certain classes in his course the following session.

The professor shook his head. He was going back to New England
himself the next year; and he moved away under the big trees,
resuming his work.

As troubles had thickened about David, his case became discussed in
University circles; and he was stopped on the street one day by
this frigid professor and greeted with a man’s grasp and a look of
fresh beautiful affection. His apostasy from dogmatism had made him
a friend of that lone thinker whose worship of God was the worship
of Him through the laws of His universe and not through the dogmas
of men.

This professor–and Gabriella: they alone, though from different
motives, had been drawn to him by what had repelled all others. It
was his new relation to her beyond anything else that filled David
this day with his deep desire for peace with his past. She had such
peace in herself, such charity of feeling, such simple steadfast
faith: she cast the music of these upon the chords of his own soul.
To the influence of her religion she was now adding the influence
of her love; it filled him, subdued, overwhelmed him. And this
morning, also out of his own happiness he remembered with most
poignant suffering the unhappiness of his father. His own life was
unfolding into fulness of affection and knowledge and strength; his
father’s was closing amid the weakness and troubles that had
gathered about him; and he, David, had contributed his share to
these. To be reconciled to his father this day–that was his sole

It was about four o’clock. The house held that quiet which reigns
of a Sunday afternoon when the servants have left the kitchen for
the cabin, when all work is done, and the feeling of Sunday rest
takes possession of our minds. The winter sunshine on the fields
seems full of rest; the brutes rest–even those that are not beasts
of burden. The birds appear to know the day, and to make note of it
in quieter twitter and slower flight.

David rose resolutely and started downstairs. As he entered his
father’s room, his mother was passing out She looked at her son
with apprehension, as she closed the door. His father was sitting
by a window, reading, as was his Sunday wont, the Bible. He had
once written to David that his had always been a religious people;
it was true. A grave, stern man–sternest, gravest on Sunday. When
it was not possible to go to church, the greater to him the reason
that the house itself should become churchlike in solemnity, out of
respect to the day and the duty of self-examination. A man of many
failings, but on this subject strong.

David sat down and waited for him to reach the end of the page or
chapter. But his father read on with a slow perceptible movement of
his lips.


The gray head was turned slowly toward him in silent resentment of
the interruption.

“I thought it would be better to come down and talk with you.”

The eyes resought the page, the lips resumed their movements.

“I am sorry to interrupt you.”

The eye still followed the inspired words, from left to right, left
to right, left to right.

“Father, things ought not to go on in this way between us. I have
been at home now for two months. I have waited, hoping that you
would give me the chance to talk about it all. You have declined,
and meantime I have simply been at work, as I used to be. But this
must not be put off longer for several reasons. There are other
things in my life now that I have to think of and care for.” The
tone in which David spoke these last words was unusual and

The eyes stopped at a point on the page. The lips were pressed
tightly together.

David rose and walked quietly out of the room. After he had closed
the door behind him and put his foot on the stairs, he stopped and
with fresh determination reopened the door. His father had shut the
Bible, laid it on the floor at the side of his chair, and was
standing in the middle of the room with his eyes on the door
through which David had passed. He pointed to his son to be seated,
and resumed his chair. He drew his penknife from his pocket and
slowly trimmed the ravellings from his shirt-cuffs, blowing them
off his wrists. David saw that his hands were trembling violently.
The tragedy in the poor action cut him to the heart and he threw
himself remorsefully into the midst of things.

“Father, I know I have disappointed you! Know it as well as you do;
but I could not have done differently.”

“YOU not believe in Christianity! YOU not believe the Bible!”

The suppressed enraged voice summed up again the old contemptuous

The young man felt that there was another than himself whom it

“Sir, you must not speak to me with that feeling! Try to see that I
am as sincere as you are. As to the goodness of my mind, I did not
derive it from myself and am not to blame. I have only made an
earnest and an honest use of what mind was given me. But I have not
relied upon it alone. There are great men, some of the greatest
minds of the world, who have been my teachers and determined my

“All your life you had the word of God as your teacher and you
believed it. Now these men tell you not to believe it and you
believe them. And then you complain that I do not think more highly
of you.”

“Father,” cried David, “there is one man whose name is very dear to
us both. The blood of that man is in me as it is in you. Sir, it is
your grandfather. Do you remember what the church of his day did
with him? Do you forget that, standing across the fields yonder, is
the church he himself built to freedom of opinion in religious
matters? I grew up, not under the shadow of that church, for it
casts none, but in the light of it. I have seen many churches
worship there. I have had before me, from the time I could
remember, my great-grandfather’s words: they seemed to me the voice
of God by whom all men were created, and the spirit of Christ by
whom, as you believe, men are to be saved.”

The younger man stopped and waited in vain for the older one to
reply. But his father also waited, and David went on:–

“I do not expect you to stand against the church in what it has
done with me: that HAD to be done. If you had been an elder of that
church, I know you, too, would have voted to expel me. What I do
ask of you is that you think me as sincere in my belief as I think
you in yours. I do ask for your toleration, your charity.
Everything else between us will be easy, if you can see that I have
done only what I could. The faith of the world grows, changes. Sons
cannot always agree with their fathers; otherwise the world would
stand still. You do not believe many things your own grandfather
believed–the man of whose memory you are so proud. The faith you
hold did not even exist among men in his day. I can no longer agree
with you: I do not think the less of you because I believe
differently; do not think the less of me!”

The young man could not enter into any argument with the old one.
He would not have disturbed if he could his father’s faith: it was
too late in life for that. Neither could he defend his own views
without attacking his father’s: that also would have been cruelty
in itself and would have been accepted as insulting. Still David
could not leave his case without witnesses.

“There are things in the old Bible that no scholar now believes.”

“The Almighty declares they are true; you say they are not: I
prefer to believe the Almighty. Perhaps He knows better than you
and the scholars.”

David fell into sorrowful silence. “There are some other matters
about which I should like to speak with you, father,” he said,
changing the subject. “I recall one thing you said to me the day I
came home. You asked me why I had come back here: do you still feel
that way?”

“I do. This is a Christian house. This is a Christian community.
You are out of place under this roof and in this neighborhood. Life
was hard enough for your mother and me before. But we did for you
what we could; you were pleased to make us this return. It will be
better for you to go.”

Every word seemed to have been hammered out of iron, once melted in
the forge, but now cold and unchangeably shaped to its heavy
purpose. The young man writhed under the hopelessness of the

“Sir, is it all on one side? Have I done nothing for you in all
these years? Until I was nearly a man’s age, did I not work? For my
years of labor did I receive more than a bare living? Did you ever
know a slave as faithful? Were you ever a harsh master to this
slave? Do you owe me nothing for all those years?–I do not mean
money,–I mean kindness, justice!”

“How many years before you began to work for us did your mother and
I work for you? Did you owe us nothing for all that?”

“I did! I do! I always shall! But do you count it against me that
Nature brought me forth helpless and kept me helpless for so many
years afterwards? If my being born was a fault, whose was it? Is
the dependence of an infant on its parent a debt? Father! father!
Be just! be just! that you may be more kind to me.”

“Kind to YOU! Just to YOU!” Hitherto his father had spoken with a
quietude which was terrible, on account of the passion raging
beneath. But now he sprang to his feet, strode across, and, pulling
a ragged shirt-cuff down from under his coat-sleeve, shook it in
his son’s eyes–poverty. He went to one of the rotting doors and
jerking it open without turning the knob, rattled it on its loose
hinges–poverty. He turned to the window, and with one gesture
depicted ruined outhouses and ruined barn, now hidden under the
snow, and beautiful in the Sunday evening light–poverty. He turned
and faced his son, majestic in mingled grief and care.

“Kind! just! you who have trifled with your advantages, you who are
sending your mother out of her home–”

David sprang toward him in an agony of trouble and remorse.

“It is not true, it is not necessary! Father, you have been too
much influenced by my mother’s fears. This is Bailey’s doing. It is
about this I have wanted to talk to you. I shall see Bailey to-

“I forbid you to see him or to interfere.”

“I must see him, whether you wish it or not,” and David, to save
other hard words that were coming, turned quickly and left the

He did not go down to supper. Toward bedtime, as he sat before his
fire, he heard a slow, unfamiliar step mounting the stair. Not
often in a year did he have the chance to recognize that step. His
mother entered, holding a small iron stewpan, from under the cover
of which steamed a sweet, spicy odor.

“This will do your cold good,” she said, tasting the stew out of a
spoon which she brought in her other hand, and setting it down on
the hot hearth. Then she stood looking a little fearfully at her
son, who had not moved. Ah, that is woman’s way! She incites men to
a difficulty, and then appears innocently on the battle-field with
bandages for the belligerents. How many of the quarrels of this
world has she caused–and how few ever witnessed!

David was sick in heart and body and kept his chair and made no
reply. His mother suddenly turned, feeling a cold draft on her
back, and observed the broken window-pane and the flapping sheet
of paper.

“There’s putty and glass in the store-room: why don’t you put that
pane of glass in?”

“I will sometime,” said David, absently. She went over to his bed
and beat up the bolster and made everything ready for him.

“You ought to have clean sheets and pillow-cases,” she remarked
confidently; “the negroes are worthless. Good night,” she said,
with her hand on the door, looking back at him timidly.

He sprang up and went over to her. “Oh, mother! mother! mother!” he
cried, and then he checked the useless words that came rushing in a

“Good night! and thank you for coming. Good night! Be careful, I’ll
bring the candle, the stairway is dark. Good night!”

“Oh, Gabriella! Gabriella!” he murmured as he went back to his
table. He buried his head on his arms a moment, then, starting up,
threw off his clothes, drank the mixture, and got into bed.


At dead of night out in a lonely country, what sound freezes the
blood like the quick cry of an animal seized and being killed? The
fright, the pain, the despair: whosoever has heard these notes has
listened to the wild death-music of Nature, ages old.

On the still frozen air near two or three o’clock of next morning,
such a cry rang out from inside the barn. There were the short
rushes to and fro, round and round; then violent leapings against
the door, the troughs, and sides of the stable; then mad plunging,
struggling, panting; then a long, terrified, weakened wail, which
told everything beyond the clearness of words.

Up in his room, perfectly dark, for the coals in the grate were now
sparkless, David was lying on his back, sleeping heavily and bathed
in perspiration. Overheated, he had pushed the bed covers off from
his throat; he had hollowed the pillow away from his face. So deep
was the stillness of the house and of the night air outside, that
almost the first sounds had reached his ear and sunk down into his
brain: he stirred slightly. As the tumult grew louder, he tossed
his head from side to side uneasily, and muttered a question in his
broken dreams. And now the barn was in an uproar; and the dog,
chained at his kennel behind the house, was howling, roaring to get
loose. Would he never waken? Would the tragedy which he himself had
unwittingly planned and staged be played to its end without his
hearing a word? (So often it is that way in life.) At last, as one
who has long tugged at his own sleep, striving to rend it as a
smothering blanket and burst through into free air, he sat up in
bed, confused, listening.

“Dogs!” he exclaimed, grinding his teeth.

He was out of bed in an instant, groping for his clothes. It seemed
he would never find them. As he dressed, he muttered remorsefully
to himself:–“I simply put them into a trap.”

When he had drawn on socks, boots, and trousers, he slipped into
his overcoat, felt for his hat, and hurried down. He released the
dog, which instantly was off in a noiseless run, and followed,
buttoning the coat about him as he went: the air was like ice
against his bare, hot throat. Another moment and he could hear the
dogs fighting. When he reached the door of the shed and threw it
open, the flock of sheep bounded out past him in a wild rush for
the open. He stepped inside, searching around with his foot as he
groped. Presently it struck against something large and soft close
to the wall in a corner. He reached down and taking it by the legs,
pulled the sheep out into the moonlight, several yards across the
snow: a red track followed, as though made with a broad dripping

David stood looking down at it and kicked it two or three times.

“Did it make any difference to you whether your life were taken by
dog or man? The dog killing you from instinct and famine; a man
killing you as a luxury and with a fine calculation? And who is to
blame now for your death, if blame there be? I who went to college
instead of building a stable? Or the storm which deprived these
prowlers of nearer food and started them on a far hunt, desperate
with hunger? Or man who took you from wild Nature and made you more
defenceless under his keeping? Or Nature herself who edged the
tooth and the mind of the dog-wolf in the beginning that he might
lengthen his life by shortening yours? Where and with what purpose
began on this planet the taking of life that there might be life?
Poor questions that never troubled you, poor sheep! But that
follow, as his shadow, pondering Man, who no more knows the reason
of it all than you did.”

The fighting of the dogs had for the first few moments sounded
farther and farther away, retreating through the barn and thence
into the lot; and by and by the shepherd ran around and stood
before David, awaiting orders. David seized the sheep by the feet
and dragged it into the saddle-house; sent the dog to watch the
rest of the flock; and ran back to the house, drawing his overcoat
more tightly about him. As quickly as possible he got into bed and
covered up warmly. Something caused him to recollect just then the
case of one of the Bible students.

“Now I am in for it,” he said.

And this made him think of his great masters and of Gabriella; and
he lay there very anxious in the night.


Twilight had three times descended on the drear land. Three times
Gabriella, standing at her windows and looking out upon the snow
and ice, had seen everything disappear. How softly white were the
snow-covered trees; how soft the black that thickened about them
till they were effaced. Gabriella thought of them as still
perfectly white out there in the darkness. Three evenings with her
face against the pane she had watched for a familiar figure to
stalk towering up the yard path, and no familiar figure had come.
Three evenings she had returned to her firelight, and sat before it
with an ear on guard for the sound of a familiar step on the porch
below; but no step had been heard.

On the first night she had all but hoped that he would not seek
her; the avowal of their love for each other had well-nigh left it
an unendurable joy. But the second night she had begun to expect
him confidently; and when the hour had passed and he had not come,
Gabriella sat long before her fire with a new wound–she who had
felt so many. By the third day she had reviewed all that she had
ever heard of him or known of him: gathered it all afresh as a
beautiful thing for receiving him with when he should come to her
that night. Going early to her room she had taken her chair to the
window and with her face close to the pane had watched again–
watched that white yard; and again nothing moved in that white yard
but the darkness.

She sprang up and began to walk to and fro.

“If he does not come to-night, something has happened. I know, I
know, I know! Something is wrong. My heart is not mistaken. Oh, if
anything were to happen to HIM! I must not think of it! I have
borne many things; but THAT! I must not think of it!”

She sank into her chair with her ear strained toward the porch
below. For a long time there was no sound. Then she heard the noise
of heavy boots–a tapping of the toes against the pillars, to knock
off the snow, and then the slow creaking of soles across the frozen
boards. She started up. “It is some one else,” she cried, wringing
her hands. “Something has happened to him.”

She stopped still in the middle of the room, her arms dropped at
her sides, her eyes stretched wide.

The house girl’s steps were heard running upstairs. Gabriella
jerked the door open in her face.

“What is the matter?” she cried.

A negro man had come with a message for her. The girl looked

Gabriella ran past her down into the hall. “What is the matter?”
she asked.

His Marse David had sent for her and wanted her to come at once. He
had brought a horse for her.

“Is he ill–seriously ill?” He had had a bad cold and was worse.

“The doctor–has he sent for the doctor?”

The negro said that he was to take her back first and then go for
the doctor.

“Go at once.”

It was very dark, he urged, and slippery.

“Go on for the doctor! Where have you left the horse?”

The horse was at the stiles. The negro insisted that it would be
better for him to go back with her.

“Don’t lose time,” she said, “and don’t keep me waiting. Go! as
quickly as you can!”

The negro cautioned her to dismount at the frozen creek.

When Gabriella, perhaps an hour later, knocked at the side door of
David’s home,–his father’s and mother’s room,–there was no
summons to enter. She turned the knob and walked in. The room was
empty; the fire had burned low; a cat lay on the hearthstones. It
raised its head halfway and looked at her through the narrow slits
of its yellow eyes and curled the tip of its tail–the cat which is
never inconvenienced, which shares all comforts and no troubles.
She sat down in a chair, overcome with excitement and hesitating
what to do. In a moment she noticed that the door opening on the
foot of the staircase stood ajar. It led to his room. Not a sound
reached her from above. She summoned all her self-control, mounted
the stairway, and entered.

The two negro women were standing inside with their backs to the
door. On one side of the bed sat David’s mother, on the other his
father. Both were looking at David. He lay in the middle of the
bed, his eyes fixed restlessly on the door. As soon as he saw her,
he lifted himself with an effort and stretched out his arms and
shook them at her with hoarse little cries. “Oh! oh! oh! oh!”

The next moment he locked his arms about her.

“Oh, it has been so long!” he said, drawing her close, “so long!”

“Ah, why did you not send for me? I have waited and waited.”

He released her and fell back upon the pillows; then with a slight
gesture he said to his father and mother:–

“Will you leave us alone?”

When they had gone out, he took one of her hands and pressed it
against his cheek and lay looking at her piteously.

Gabriella saw the change in him: his anxious expression, his cheeks
flushed with a red spot, his restlessness, his hand burning. She
could feel the big veins throbbing too fast, too crowded. But a
woman smiles while her heart breaks.

He propped himself a little higher on the pillows and turned on his
side, clutching at his lung.

“Don’t be frightened,” he said, searching her face, “I’ve got
something to tell you. Promise.”

“I promise.”

“I am going to have pneumonia, or I have it now. You are not

Her eyes answered for her.

“I had a cold. I had taken something to throw me into a sweat–that
was the night after I saw you.”

At the thought of their last interview, he took her hand again and
pressed it to his lips, looking tenderly at it.

“The dogs were killing the sheep, and I got up and went out while I
was in a perspiration. I know it’s pneumonia. I have had a long,
hard chill. My head feels like it would burst, and there are other
symptoms. This lung! It’s pneumonia. One of the Bible college
students had it. I helped to nurse him. Oh, he got well,” he said,
shaking his head at her with a smile, “and so will I!”

“I know it,” she murmured, “I’m sure of it.”

“What I want to ask is, Will you stay with me?”

“Ah, nothing could take me from you.”

“I don’t want you to leave me. I want to feel that you are right
here by me through it all. I have to tell you something else: I may
be delirious and not know what is going on. I have sent for the
doctor. But there is a better one in Lexington. You try to get him
to come. I know that he goes wherever he is called and stays till
the danger is past or–or–till it is settled. Don’t spare
anything that can be done for me. I am in danger, and I must live.
I must not lose all the greatness of life and lose you.”

“Ah,” she implored, seeing how ill he was. “Everything that can be
done shall be done. Now oughtn’t you to be quiet and let me make
you comfortable till the doctor comes?”

“I must say something else while I can, and am sure. I might not
get over this–”


“Let me say this: I MIGHT not! If I should not, have no fear about
the future; I have none; it will all be well with ME in Eternity.”

He lay quiet a moment, his face turned off. She had buried hers on
the bed. The flood of tears would come. He turned over, and seeing
it laid his hand on it very lightly.

“If it be so, Gabriella, I hope all the rest of your life you will
be happy. I hope no more trouble will ever come to you.”

Suddenly he sat up, lifted her head, and threw his arms around her
again. “Oh, Gabriella!” he cried, “you have been all there is to

“Some day,” he continued a moment later, “if it turns out that way,
come over here to see my father and mother. And tell them I left
word that perhaps they had never quite understood me and so had
never been able to do me justice. Now, will you call my mother?”

“Mother,” he said, taking her by the hand and placing it in
Gabriella’s, “this is my wife, as I hope she will be, and your
daughter; and I have asked her to stay and help you to nurse me
through this cold.”

Three twilights more and there was a scene in the little upper room
of the farmhouse: David drawn up on the bed; at one side of it, the
poor distracted mother, rocking herself and loudly weeping; for
though mothers may not greatly have loved their grown sons, when
the big men lie stricken and the mothers once more take their hands
to wash them, bathe their faces with a cloth, put a spoon to their
lips, memory brings back the days when those huge erring bodies lay
across their breasts. They weep for the infant, now an infant again
and perhaps falling into a long sleep.

On the other side of the bed sat David’s father, bending over
toward, trying now, as he had so often tried, to reach his son;
thinking at swift turns of the different will he would have to make
and of who would write it; of his own harshness; and also not free
from the awful dread that this was the summons to his son to enter
Eternity with his soul unprepared. At the foot of the bed were the
two doctors, watchful, whispering to each other, one of whom led
the mother out of the room; over by the door the two negro women
and the negro man. Gabriella was not there.

Gabriella had gone once more to where she had been many times: gone
to pour out in secret the prayer of her church, and of her own soul
for the sick–with faith that her prayer would be answered.

A dark hour: a dog howling on the porch below; at the stable the
cries of hungry, neglected animals; the winter hush settling over
the great evening land.


When one sets out to walk daily across a wood or field in a fresh
direction, starting always at the same point and arriving always at
the same, without intention one makes a path; it may be long first,
but in time the path will come. It commences at the home gate or
bars and reaches forward by degrees; it commences at the opposite
goal and lengthens backward thence: some day the ends meet and we
discover with surprise how slightly we have deviated in all those
crossings and recrossings. The mind has unconsciously marked a path
long before the feet have traced it.

When Gabriella had begun teaching, she passed daily out of the yard
into an apple orchard and thence across a large woodland pasture,
in the remote corner of which the schoolhouse was situated. Through
this woods the children had made their path: the straight
instinctive path of childhood. But Gabriella, leaving this at the
woods-gate, had begun to make one for herself. She followed her
will from day to day; now led in this direction by some better
vista; now drawn aside toward a group of finer trees; or seeing,
farther on, some little nooklike place. In time, she had out of
short disjointed threads sown a continuous path; it was made up of
her loves, and she loved it. Of mornings a brisk walk along this
braced her mind for the day; in the evening it quieted jangled
nerves and revived a worn-out spirit: shedding her toil at the
schoolhouse door as a heavy suffocating garment, she stepped
gratefully out into its largeness, its woodland odors, and twilight

On the night of the sleet tons of timber altogether had descended
across this by-way. When the snow fell the next night, it brought
down more. But the snow melted, leaving the ice; the ice melted,
leaving the dripping boughs and bark. In time these were warmed and
dried by sun and wind. New edges of greenness appeared running
along the path. The tree-tops above were tossing and roaring in the
wild gales of March, Under loose autumn leaves the earliest violets
were dim with blue. But Gabriella had never once been there to
realize how her path had been ruined, or to note the birth of

It was perhaps a month afterward that one morning at the usual
school hour her tall lithe figure, clad in gray hood and cloak,
appeared at last walking along this path, stepping over or passing
around the fallen boughs. She was pale and thin, but the sweet warm
womanliness of her, if possible, lovelier. There was a look of
religious gratitude in the eyes, but about her mouth new happiness.

Her duties were done earlier than usual that afternoon, for not
much could be accomplished on this first day of reassembling the
children. They were gone; and she stood on the steps of the school-
house, facing toward a gray field on a distant hillside, which
caught the faint sunshine. It drew her irresistibly in heart and
foot, and she set out toward it.

The day was one of those on which the seasons meet. Strips of snow
ermined the field; but on the stumps, wandering and warbling before
Gabriella as she advanced, were bluebirds, those wings of the sky,
those breasts of earth. She reached the spot she was seeking, and
paused. There it was–the whole pitiful scene! His hemp brake; the
charred rind of a stump where he had kindled a fire to warm his
hands; the remnant of the shock fallen over and left unfinished
that last afternoon; trailing across his brake a handful of hemp
partly broken out.

She surveyed it all with wistful tenderness. Then she looked away
to the house. She could see the window of his room at which she had
sat how many days, gazing out toward this field! On his bed in that
room he was now stretched weak and white, but struggling back into

She came closer and gazed down at his frozen boot prints. How near
his feet had drawn to that long colder path which would have
carried him away from her. How nearly had his young life been left,
like the hand of hemp he last had handled–half broken out, not
yet ready for strong use and good service. At that moment one scene
rose before her memory: a day at Bethlehem nigh Jerusalem; a young
Hebrew girl issuing from her stricken house and hastening to meet
Him who was the Resurrection and the Life; then in her despair
uttering her one cry:–“Lord, if Thou hadst been here, my brother
had not died.”

The mist of tears blinded Gabriella, whose love and faith were as
Martha’s. She knelt down and laid her cheek against the coarse hemp
where it had been wrapped about his wrist.

“Lord,” she said, “hadst Thou not been here, hadst Thou not heard
my prayer for him, he would have died!”


Spring, who breaks all promises in the beginning to keep them in
the end, had ceased from chilling caprice and withdrawals: the
whole land was now the frank revelation of her loveliness. Autumn–
the hours of falling and of departing; spring–season of rise and
of return. The rise of sap from root to summit; the rise of plant
from soil to sun; the rise of bud from bark to bloom; the rise of
song from heart to hearing: vital days. And days when things that
went away come back, when woods, fields, thickets, and streams are
full of returns.

Gabriella was not disappointed. Those provident old tree-mothers on
the orchard slope, whose red-cheeked children are autumn apples,
had not let themselves be fatally surprised by the great February
frost: their bark-cradled bud-infants had only been wrapped away
the more warmly till danger was over. For many days now the
hillside had been a grove of pink and white domes under each of
which hung faint fragrance: the great silent marriage-bells of the

After the early family supper, Gabriella, if there had been no
shower, would take her shawl to sit on and some bit of work for
companionship. She would go out to the edge of this orchard away
from the tumult of the house. The hill sloped down into a wide
green valley winding away toward the forest below. Through this
valley a stream of white spring water, drunk by the stock, ran
within banks of mint and over a bed of rocks and moss. On the
hillside opposite was a field of young hemp stretching westward–
soon to be a low sea of rippling green. Beyond this field was the
sunset; over it flashed the evening star; and for the past few days
beside the star had hung the inconstant, the constant, crescent of

She liked to spread her shawl on the edge of the orchard
overlooking the valley–a deep carpet of grass sprinkled with
wind-blown petals; to watch the sky kindle and burn out; see the
recluse Evening come forth before the Night and walk softly down
the valley toward the woods; feel as an elixir about her the air,
sweet from the trees, sweet with earth odors, sweet with all the
lingering history of the day. Nearer, ever nearer would swing the
stars into her view. The moon, late a bow of thinnest, mistiest
silver, now of broadening, brightening gold, would begin to drive
the darkness downward from the white domes of the trees till it lay
as a faint shadow beneath them. These were hours fraught with peace
and rest to her tired mind and tired body.

One day she was sitting thus, absently knitting herself some
bleaching gloves, (Gabriella’s hands were as if stained by all the
mixed petals of the boughs.) The sun was going down beyond the low
hills, In the orchard behind her she could hear the flutter of
wings and the last calls of quieting birds.

She had dropped the threads of her handiwork into her lap, and with
folded hands was knitting memories.

At twilights such as this in years gone by, she, a little girl, had
been used to drive out into the country with her grandmother–
often choosing the routes herself and ordering the carriage to be
stopped on the road as her fancy pleased. For in those aristocratic
days, Southern children, like those of royal families, were
encouraged early in life to learn how to give orders and to exact
obedience and to rule: when they grew up they would have many under
them: and not to reign was to be ruined. So that the infantile
autocrat Gabriella was being instructed in this way and in that way
by the powerful, strong-minded, efficient grandmother as a tender
old lioness might train a cub for the mastering of its dangerous
world. She recalled these twilight drives when the fields along the
turnpikes were turning green with the young grain; the homeward
return through the lamp-lit town to the big iron entrance-gate, the
parklike lawn; the brilliant supper in the great house, the
noiseless movements, the perfect manners of the many servants;
later in the evening the music, the dancing, the wild joy–
fairyland once more. But how far, far away now! And how the forces
of life had tossed things since then like straws on the eddies of a
tempest: her grandmother killed, thousands of miles away, with
sorrow; her uncles with their oldest sons, mere boys, fighting and
falling together; tears, poverty, ruin everywhere: and she, after
years of struggle, cast completely out of the only world she had
ever known into another that she had never imagined.

Gabriella felt this evening what often came to her at times: a deep
yearning for her own people of the past, for their voices, their
ways of looking at life; for the gentleness and courtesy, and the
thousand unconscious moods and acts that rendered them
distinguished and delightful. She would have liked to slip back
into the old elegance, to have been surrounded by the old rich and
beautiful things. The child-princess who was once her sole self was
destined to live within Gabriella always.

But she knew that the society in which she had moved was lost to
her finally. Not alone through the vicissitudes of the war; for
after the war, despite the overthrow, the almost complete
disappearance, of many families, it had come together, it had
reconstituted itself, it flourished still. It was lost to her
because she had become penniless and because she had gone to work.
When it transpired that she had declined all aid, thrown off all
disguises, and taken her future into her own hands, to work and to
receive wages for her work, in the social world where she was known
and where the generations of her family had been leaders, there
were kind offers of aid, secret condolences, whispered regrets,
visible distress: her resolve was a new thing for a girl in those
years. She could, indeed, in a way, have kept her place; but she
could not have endured the sympathy, the change, with which she
would have been welcomed–and discarded. She made trial of this a
few times and was convinced: up to the day of the cruel discovery
of that, Gabriella had never dreamed what her social world could be
to one who had dropped out of it.

Her church and the new life–these two had been left her. She no
longer had a pew, but she had her faith and this was enough; for it
always gave her, wherever she was, some secret place in which to
kneel and from which to rise strengthened and comforted. As for the
fearful fields of work into which she had come, a strange and
solitary learner, these had turned into the abiding, the living
landscapes of life now. Here she had found independence–sweet,
wholesome crust; found another self within herself; and here found
her mission for the future–David. So that looking upon the
disordered and planless years, during which it had often seemed
that she was struggling unwatched, Gabriella now believed that
through them she had most been guided, When many hands had let hers
go, One had taken it; when old pathways were closed, a new one was
opened; and she had been led along it–home.

David’s illness had deepened beyond any other experience her faith
in an overruling Providence. His return to health was to her a
return from death: it was an answer to her prayers: it was a
resurrection. Henceforth his life was a gift for the second time to
himself, to her, to the world for which he must work with all his
powers and work aright. And her pledge, her compact with the
Divine, was to help him, to guide him back into the faith from
which he had wandered. Outside of prayer, days and nights at his
bedside had made him hers: vigils, nursing, suffering,
helplessness, dependence–all these had been as purest oil to that
alabaster lamp of love which burned within her chaste soul.

The sun had gone down. The hush of twilight was descending from the
clear sky, in the depths of which the brightest stars began to
appear as points of silvery flame. The air had the balm of early
summer, the ground was dry and warm.

Gabriella began to watch. The last time she had gone to see him, as
he walked part of the way back with her, he had said:–

“I am well now; the next time _I_ am coming to see YOU.”

Soon, along the edge of the orchard from the direction of the
house, she saw him walking slowly toward her, thin, gaunt; he was
leaning on a rough, stout hickory, as long as himself, in the
manner of an old man.

She rose quickly and hastened to him. “Did you walk?”

“I rode. But I am walking now–barely. This young tree is
escorting me.”

They went back to her shawl, which she opened and spread, making a
place for him. She moved it back a little, for safety, so that it
was under the boughs of one of the trees.

How quiet the land was, how beautiful the evening light, how sweet
the air!

Now and then a petal from some finished blossom sifted down on

They were at such peace: their talk was interrupted by the long
silences which are peace.

“Gabriella, you saved my life.”

“It is not I who have power over life and death.”

“It was your nursing.”

“It was my prayers,” murmured Gabriella.

“And you gave me the will to get well: that also was a great help:
without you I should not have had that same will to live.”

“It was a higher Will than yours or mine.”

“And the doctor from town who stayed with me.”

“And a Greater Physician who stayed also.”

He made no reply for a while, but then asked, turning his face
toward her uneasily:–

“Our different ways of looking at things–will they never make any
difference with you?”

“Some day there will be no difference.”

“You will agree with me?” he exclaimed joyfully.

“You will agree with me.”

“Do not expect that! Do not expect that I shall ever again believe
in the old things.”

“I expect you to believe in God, in the New Testament, in the
Resurrection, in the answer to prayer.”

“If I do not?”

“Then you will in the Life to come.”

“But will this separate us?”

“You will need me all the more.”

The light was fading: they could no longer see the green of the
valley. A late bird fluttered into the boughs overhead and more
petals came down.

“It is a nest,” said David, softly, “a good thing to go home to, a
night like this.”

“And now,” he continued, “there are matters about which I must
consult you. You will be glad to know that things are pleasanter at
home. Since my illness my father and mother have changed toward me.
Sickness, nearness to death, is a great reconciler. Your being in
the house had much to do with this–especially your influence over
my mother. My father was talked to by the doctor from town. During
the days and nights he stayed with me, he got into my trunk of
books, for he is a great reader; and–as he told me before leaving–
a believer in the New Science, an evolutionist. He knew of my
expulsion, of course, and of the reasons. I think he explained a
great deal to my father, who said to me one day simply that the
doctor had talked to him.”

“He talked to me, also,” said Gabriella. “And did not persuade

“He said I almost persuaded him!”

“And then, too, my father and I have arranged the money trouble. It
is not the best, but the best possible. When I came home from
college, I brought with me almost half the money I had accumulated.
I turned this over to my father, of course. It will go toward
making necessary repairs. But it was not enough, and the woods has
had to go. The farm shall not be sold, but the woods is rented for
a term of years as hemp land, the trees must be deadened and cut
down. I am sorry; it is the last of the forest of my great-
grandfather. But with the proceeds, the place can be put into
fairly good condition, and this is the greatest relief to my father
and mother–and to me.”

“It is a good arrangement.”

After a pause, he continued in a changed tone:–

“And now while everything is pleasant at home, it is the time for
me to go away. My father was right: this is no place for me. I must
be where people think as I do–must live where I shall not be
alone. There will soon be plenty of companions everywhere. The
whole world will believe in Evolution before I am an old man.”

“I think you are right,” she said quietly. “It is best for you to
go and to go at once.”

When he spoke again, plainly he was inspired with fresh confidence
by her support of his plans.

“And now, Gabriella, I must tell you what I have determined to do
in life: I want your approval of that, and then I am perfectly

“Ah,” she said quickly, “that is what I have been wanting to know.
It is very important. Your whole future depends on a wise choice.”

“I am going to some college–to some northern university, as soon
as possible. I shall have to work my way through, sometimes by
teaching, in whatever way I can. I want to study physical science.
I want to teach some branch of it. It draws me, draws all that is
in me. That is to be my life-work. And now?”

He waited for her answer: it did not come at once.

“You have chosen wisely. I am so glad!”

“Oh, Gabriella!” he cried, “if you had failed me in that, I do not
know what I should have done! Science! Science! There is the fresh
path for the faith of the race! For the race henceforth must get
its idea of God, and build its religion to Him, from its knowledge
of the laws of His universe. A million years from now! Where will
our dark theological dogmas be in that radiant time? The Creator of
all life, in all life He must be studied! And in the study of
science there is least wrangling, least tyranny, least bigotry, no
persecution. It teaches charity, it teaches a well-ordered life, it
teaches the world to be more kind. It is the great new path of
knowledge into the future. All things must follow whither it leads.
Our religion will more and more be what our science is, and some
day they will be the same.”

She had no controversy to raise with him about this. She was too
intently thinking of troublous problems nearer heart and home.

And these rose before him also: he fell into silence.

“But, oh, Gabriella! how long, how long the years will be that
separate me from you!”

“No!” she exclaimed, her whole nature starting up, terrified. “What
do you mean? No!”

“I mean while I am going through college; while I am preparing a
place for you.”

“Preparing a place FOR ME! You have prepared a place for me and I
have taken it. My place is with you.”

“Gabriella, do you know I have not a dollar in the world?”

“_I_ have!”


“Ah, don’t! don’t! That would be the first time you had ever
wounded me!”

“How can I–”

“How can you go away and leave me here–here–anywhere–alone–
struggling in the world alone? And you somewhere else alone? Lose
those years of being together? Can you even bear the thought of it?
Ah, I did not think this!”

“It was only because–”

“But it shall never be! I will not be separated from you!”

David remembered a middle-aged man at the University, working his
way through college with his wife beside him. His heart melted in
joy and tenderness–before the possibility of life with her so
near. He could not speak.

“I will never be separated from you!”

And then, feeling her victory won, she added joyously: “And what I
have shall never be separated from me! We three–I, thou, it–go
together. My two years’ salary–do you think I love it so little as
to leave it behind when I go away with you?”

“Oh, Gabriella!”–

The domes of the trees were white with blossoms now and with
moonlight. How warm and sweet the air! How sacred the words and the
silences! Two children of vast and distant revolutions guided
together into one life–a young pair facing toward a future of
wider, better things for mankind.

“Gabriella, when a man has heard the great things calling to him,
how they call and call, day and night, day and night!”

“When a woman hears them once, it is enough.”

Even in this hour Gabriella was receiving the wound which is so
often the pathos and the happiness of a woman’s love. For even in
these moments he could not forget Truth for her. And so, she said
to herself with a hidden tear, it would be always. She would give
him her all, she could never be all to him. Her life would be
enfolded completely in his; but he would hold out his arms also
toward a cold Spirit who would forever elude him–Wisdom.

The golden crescent dropped behind the dark green hills of the
silent land. Where were they? Gone? or still under the trees?

“Ah, Gabriella, it is love that makes a man believe in a God of

“David! David!”–

The south wind, warm with the first thrill of summer, blew from
across the valley, from across the mighty rushing sea of the young

O Mystery Immortal! which is in the hemp and in our souls, in its
bloom and in our passions; by which our poor brief lives are led
upward out of the earth for a season, then cut down, rotted and
broken–for Thy long service!

End of Project Gutenberg’s The Reign Of Law, by James Lane Allen